Contraceptive adherence during acute and recent HIV-1 infection is important to maternal and child health given the elevated risk of vertical HIV-1 transmission and additional complications of pregnancy. Injectable contraception (IC) is the most common non-barrier modern contraception method used in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Adherence to IC after HIV-1 seroconversion is not well understood.
Past endeavours to deal with the obstacle of expensive Cluster of Difference 4 (CD4(+)) count diagnostics in resource-limited settings have left a long trail of suggested continuous CD4(+) count clinical covariates that turned out to be a potentially important integral part of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment process during disease progression. However, an evaluation to determine the strongest candidates among these CD4(+) count covariates has not been well documented.
Vaginal dysbiosis and STIs are important drivers of the HIV epidemic and reproductive complications. These conditions remain prevalent, partly because most cases are asymptomatic. We have shown that inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta and interferon-gamma-induced protein (IP)-10 are biomarkers for detecting asymptomatic STIs and vaginal dysbiosis (bacterial vaginosis (BV) or intermediate microbiota). This study aimed to validate the performance of these biomarkers in African women recruited regardless of symptoms.
'HIV prevention cascades' have been proposed to support programmes by identifying gaps in demand for, access to and capability to adhere to HIV prevention tools, but there are few empirical examples to guide development. We apply a prevention cascade framework to examine prevention coverage and factors associated with condoms and/or PrEP adherence among female sex workers (FSW).
The focus of HIV interventions in Botswana, a country with the second highest prevalence of HIV in the world, remains targeted at those aged 15-49 years despite a growing cohort of older people living with the disease - driven largely by the successful roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Primarily utilising the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey IV, we set out to examine HIV related characteristics and behaviours of this often ignored older cohort (50-64 years) relative to younger (25-49 years) adults.
High-risk human papilloma viruses (hrHPV) are the causative agents of cervical cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths among Zimbabwean women. The objective of this study was to describe the hrHPV types found in Zimbabwe for consideration in cervical cancer screening and vaccination efforts.
Men's relatively low rates of HIV testing has been termed the 'HIV blind spot' and recently declared by UNAIDS as a top priority. This study uses data from five nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe to explore factors associated with men's lifetime HIV testing.
Male sex workers are marginalized in most societies due to intersectional stigma between prostitution and homosexuality. In Zimbabwe, a proliferation of male sex workers in major cities such as Harare and Bulawayo has been reported.