Basic and Clinical Science

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April 12, 2019
Since rapid cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assays (CrAg LFA) may expedite treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal infections, we sought to validate clinic-based CrAg LFA testing. Among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected adults in South Africa, a trained nurse performed clinic-based testing of urine, fingerprick capillary and venous whole blood with rapid CrAg LFA (Immy Diagnostics, Norman, USA).
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April 12, 2019

BACKGROUND: Little is known about renal pathology among perinatally HIV-infected children and adolescents in Africa.

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April 12, 2019
Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Sub-Saharan Africa. The risk of developing cancer is increased for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is unknown which factors predict the initiation of curative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in resource-limited settings and whether HIV is associated with initiating curative CRT in settings with a high HIV burden.
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April 12, 2019
Many countries, including South Africa, have implemented population-based household surveys to estimate HIV prevalence and the burden of HIV infection. Most household HIV surveys are designed to provide reliable estimates down to only the first subnational geopolitical level which, in South Africa, is composed of nine provinces. However HIV prevalence estimates are needed down to at least the second subnational level in order to better target the delivery of HIV care, treatment and prevention services.
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April 12, 2019
Treat-all is being implemented in several African settings, in accordance with 2015 World Health Organisation guidelines. The factors known to undermine adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) may change in the context of Treat-all, where people living with HIV (PLHIV) increasingly initiate ART at earlier, asymptomatic stages of disease, soon after diagnosis. This paper aimed to examine the asymptomatic PLHIV's experiences engaging with early ART initiation under the Treat-all policy, including how they navigate treatment-taking over the longer term.
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April 12, 2019
This study aimed to explore the perceptions and opinions of female school teachers and health workers on HIV-protective benefits of male circumcision and its impact on risk compensatory behaviour among women in Malawi.
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April 12, 2019

BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 occurs in a minority of HIV-infected mother-infant pairs, even without any interventions. The mechanisms that protect the majority of HIV-exposed infants from infection are unclear.

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April 12, 2019

BACKGROUND: WHO recommends that HIV infected women receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) minimally during pregnancy and breastfeeding ("Option B"), or ideally throughout their lives regardless of clinical stage ("Option B+") (Coovadia et al., Lancet 379:221-228, 2012).

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April 12, 2019
he GeneXpert MTB/RIF Assay (Xpert(R)) is known to be a feasible, effective and a hopeful tool for rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment. However, little is known about the time delay caused by initial negative sputum smear microscopy (NSSM), but consecutive positive Xpert TB test (PXTBt) and its association with TB mortality in resource-constrained settings. We aimed to estimate the median time delay between initial NSSM but consecutive PXTBt and TB treatment initiation and its association with TB mortality among TB/HIV co-infected patients in Beira, Mozambique.
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April 12, 2019

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data describing autoimmune skin diseases in sub-Saharan Africa and in HIV positive cohorts. We describe the incidence of autoimmune skin diseases in public dermatology clinics in Botswana.