Basic and Clinical Science

Resource
April 12, 2019
Community-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) programs have become an important part of the healthcare system in South Africa and other low- and middle-income countries with a high HIV prevalence and strained primary healthcare system. Current HTC programs excel at identifying people living with HIV (PLH) but leave gaps in linkage to care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) as most HTC programs do not have the capacity to ensure that linkage has occurred.
Resource
April 12, 2019
Zimbabwe has made substantial progress towards the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) targets of 90-90-90 by 2020, with 73% of people living with HIV diagnosed, 87% of those diagnosed on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 86% of those on ART virally suppressed. Despite this exceptional response, more effort is needed to completely achieve the UNAIDS targets. Here, we conducted a detailed spatial analysis of the geographical structure of the HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe to include geographical prioritization as a key component of their overall HIV intervention strategy.
Resource
April 12, 2019
The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of and factors associated with incorrect dosing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children in Harare, Zimbabwe.
Resource
April 12, 2019
Since rapid cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assays (CrAg LFA) may expedite treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal infections, we sought to validate clinic-based CrAg LFA testing. Among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected adults in South Africa, a trained nurse performed clinic-based testing of urine, fingerprick capillary and venous whole blood with rapid CrAg LFA (Immy Diagnostics, Norman, USA).
Resource
April 12, 2019
Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Sub-Saharan Africa. The risk of developing cancer is increased for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is unknown which factors predict the initiation of curative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in resource-limited settings and whether HIV is associated with initiating curative CRT in settings with a high HIV burden.
Resource
April 12, 2019
Many countries, including South Africa, have implemented population-based household surveys to estimate HIV prevalence and the burden of HIV infection. Most household HIV surveys are designed to provide reliable estimates down to only the first subnational geopolitical level which, in South Africa, is composed of nine provinces. However HIV prevalence estimates are needed down to at least the second subnational level in order to better target the delivery of HIV care, treatment and prevention services.
Resource
April 12, 2019
Treat-all is being implemented in several African settings, in accordance with 2015 World Health Organisation guidelines. The factors known to undermine adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) may change in the context of Treat-all, where people living with HIV (PLHIV) increasingly initiate ART at earlier, asymptomatic stages of disease, soon after diagnosis. This paper aimed to examine the asymptomatic PLHIV's experiences engaging with early ART initiation under the Treat-all policy, including how they navigate treatment-taking over the longer term.
Resource
April 12, 2019
This study aimed to explore the perceptions and opinions of female school teachers and health workers on HIV-protective benefits of male circumcision and its impact on risk compensatory behaviour among women in Malawi.
Resource
April 12, 2019
Vaginal dysbiosis and STIs are important drivers of the HIV epidemic and reproductive complications. These conditions remain prevalent, partly because most cases are asymptomatic. We have shown that inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta and interferon-gamma-induced protein (IP)-10 are biomarkers for detecting asymptomatic STIs and vaginal dysbiosis (bacterial vaginosis (BV) or intermediate microbiota). This study aimed to validate the performance of these biomarkers in African women recruited regardless of symptoms.
Resource
April 12, 2019
This study aimed to determine the proportion of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) patients who accessed second-line drug susceptibility testing (SL-DST) results following introduction of the Hain technology in southern provinces, Zimbabwe.