treatment initiation

Treatment initiation among persons diagnosed with drug resistant tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa

Author
Denise Evans, Kathryn Schnippel, Caroline Govathson, Tembeka Sineke, Andrew Black, Lawrence Long, Rebecca Berhanu, Sydney Rosen
In South Africa, roughly half of the drug-resistant TB cases diagnosed are reported to have been started on treatment. We determined the proportion of persons diagnosed with rifampicin resistant (RR-) TB who initiated treatment in Johannesburg after the introduction of decentralized RR-TB care in 2011.
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High rates of death and loss to follow-up by 12 months of rifampicin resistant TB treatment in South Africa

Author
Kamban Hirasen, Rebecca Berhanu, Denise Evans, Sydney Rosen, Ian Sanne, Lawrence Long
Treatment success rates of rifampicin resistant (RR)/multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in South Africa range from 43–48%, falling short of the World Health Organization’s target of ≥75%. We present rates and assess predictors of attrition by 12 months on treatment.
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Global Trends in CD4 Cell Count at the Start of Antiretroviral Therapy: Collaborative Study of Treatment Programs

Is the resource available on the Internet?
Yes
Author
The IeDEA and COHERE Cohort Collaborations

Background

Early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), at higher CD4 cell counts, prevents disease progression and reduces sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We describe the temporal trends in CD4 cell counts at the start of cART in adults from low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income countries (LICs, LMICs, UMICs, and HICs, respectively).

Methods

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Identification of misdiagnosed HIV clients in an Early Access to ART for All implementation study in Eswatini

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Yes
Author
Shaukat Khan, Emma Mafara, Munyaradzi Pasipamire, Donna Spiegelman, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Nombuso Ntshalintshali, Anita Hettema, Charlotte Lejeune, Fiona Walsh, Velephi Okello

Rapid diagnostic testing has made HIV diagnosis and subsequent treatment more accessible. However, multiple factors, including improper implementation of testing strategies and clerical errors, have been reported to lead to HIV misdiagnosis. The World Health Organization has recommended HIV retesting prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation which has become pertinent with scaling up of Early Access to ART for All (EAAA). In this analysis, misdiagnosed clients are identified from a subgroup of clients enrolled in EAAA implementation study in Swaziland.

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Guidelines for the managing advanced HIV disease and rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy

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Yes
Author
World Health Organization

The objectives of these guidelines are to provide recommendations outlining a public health approach to managing people presenting with advanced HIV disease, and to provide guidance on the timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all people living with HIV.

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Diagnosis and monitoring of HIV programmes to support treatment initiation and follow up and improve programme quality

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Yes
Author
Venter, Willem Daniel Francois; Ford, Nathan; Vitoria, Marco; Stevens, Wendy

The much-discussed HIV ‘cascade of care’ has demonstrated marked loss between HIV diagnosis, linkage and initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART), compromising mortality and morbidity benefits to the individual, as well as public health prevention impact. As large-scale programmes provide more long-term data, opportunities have arisen to reduces losses across the cascade.

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Global HIV Treatment Guidelines May Be Revised Based on Study

A lead physician with the World Health Organization (WHO) says the Geneva-based group may change its guidelines for when HIV-infected individuals should start antiretroviral treatment (ART), a move that could potentially affect millions.

Author
Kitta MacPherson
Source
IAVI Report
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