High rates of multidrug-resistant and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis among re-treatment cases: where do they come from?

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Romain Ragonnet, James M. Trauer, Justin T. Denholm, Ben J. Marais and Emma S. McBryde

Globally 3.9% of new and 21% of re-treatment tuberculosis (TB) cases are multidrug-resistant or rifampicin-resistant (MDR/RR), which is often interpreted as evidence that drug resistance results mainly from poor treatment adherence. This study aims to assess the respective contributions of the different causal pathways leading to MDR/RR-TB at re-treatment.

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