prisoners

Key Populations Atlas

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Yes
Author
UNAIDS

UNAIDS has just relaunched its Key Populations Atlas, an online tool that provides a range of information about members of key populations worldwide, including sex workers, gay men and other men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, transgender people and prisoners. In collaboration with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the World Health Organization, and the Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis of the U.S.

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Pocket Guide for Peer Education Program to Reduce TB and HIV Risks in Tanzania Prisons

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Yes
Author
Strengthening High Impact Interventions for an AIDS-free Generation (AIDSFree) Project

The objectives of this program are to encourage behavior change among inmates and prison staff to reduce the risk of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) by educating them about the contributing factors and encouraging use of available health services. This guide provides peer educators with activities and information necessary to deliver training on HIV and TB to inmates and prison staff. This guide contains six modules. Each module contains a brief introduction along with key facts and information.

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Barriers and facilitators to the uptake of tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment services by hard-to-reach populations in countries of low and medium tuberculosis incidence: a systematic review of qualitative literature

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Yes
Author
de Vries, Sophia G et al.

Tuberculosis disproportionately affects hard-to-reach populations, such as homeless people, migrants, refugees, prisoners, or drug users. These people often face challenges in accessing quality health care. We did a systematic review of the qualitative literature to identify barriers and facilitators to the uptake of tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment services by people from hard-to-reach populations in all European Union (EU), European Economic Area, EU candidate, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.

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Training of Trainers: Peer Education Program for Inmates and Staff to Reduce Tuberculosis and HIV Risk in Tanzania Prisons

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Yes
Author
Mihyo, Zuki, Jennifer Casto, and Ignatio Chiyaka

In 2014, USAID/Tanzania awarded the Tanzania Strengthening Police and Prison Comprehensive HIV Services (SPPCHS) project as an initiative under the AIDSFree project. The SPPCHS project worked with the Ministry of Home Affairs to design a peer education program for prisons to provide knowledge, skills, and tools to prevent and respond to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV in prisons. AIDSFree held two training of trainers (TOT) in Dodoma to train 55 prison officers from 26 prison facilities to train prison staff and inmates on the new peer education program.

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HIV, prisoners, and human rights

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Yes
Author
Leonard S Rubenstein, Joseph J Amon, Megan McLemore, Patrick Eba, Kate Dolan, Rick Lines, Chris Beyrer

Worldwide, a disproportionate burden of HIV, tuberculosis, and hepatitis is present among current and former prisoners. This problem results from laws, policies, and policing practices that unjustly and discriminatorily detain individuals and fail to ensure continuity of prevention, care, and treatment upon detention, throughout imprisonment, and upon release. These government actions, and the failure to ensure humane prison conditions, constitute violations of human rights to be free of discrimination and cruel and inhuman treatment, to due process of law, and to health.

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Prevention of transmission of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis in prisoners

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Yes
Author
Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Stewart E Reid, Amee Schwitters, Lucas Wiessing, Nabila El-Bassel, Kate Dolan, Babak Moazen, Andrea L Wirtz, Annette Verster and Frederick L Altice

The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis are higher in prisons than in the general population in most countries worldwide. Prisons have emerged as a risk environment for these infections to be further concentrated, amplified, and then transmitted to the community after prisoners are released. In the absence of alternatives to incarceration, prisons and detention facilities could be leveraged to promote primary and secondary prevention strategies for these infections to improve prisoners health and reduce risk throughout incarceration and on release.

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Clinical care of incarcerated people with HIV, viral hepatitis, or tuberculosis

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Yes
Author
Josiah D Rich, Curt G Beckwith, Alexandria Macmadu, Brandon D L Marshall, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Joseph J Amon, M-J Milloy, Maximilian R F King, Jorge Sanchez, Lukoye Atwoli, and Frederick L Altice

The burden of HIV/AIDS and other transmissible diseases is higher in prison and jail settings than in the non-incarcerated communities that surround them. In this comprehensive review, we discuss available literature on the topic of clinical management of people infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, and tuberculosis in incarcerated settings in addition to co-occurrence of one or more of these infections.

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Global burden of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis in prisoners and detainees

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Yes
Author
Kate Dolan, Andrea L Wirtz, Babak Moazen, Martial Ndeffo-mbah, Alison Galvani, Stuart A Kinner, Ryan Courtney, Martin McKee, Joseph J Amon, Lisa Maher, Margaret Hellard, Chris Beyrer and Fredrick L Altice

The prison setting presents not only challenges, but also opportunities, for the prevention and treatment of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis. We did a comprehensive literature search of data published between 2005 and 2015 to understand the global epidemiology of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and tuberculosis in prisoners. We further modelled the contribution of imprisonment and the potential impact of prevention interventions on HIV transmission in this population.

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Neglect of infectious diseases in prisons highlighted at AIDS 2016

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Yes
Author
Theo Smart

“Prisoners are among the most neglected of the key populations; they bear higher burdens of HIV, viral hepatitis and tuberculosis than in the communities from which they come,” said Professor Chris Beyrer of Johns Hopkins University and outgoing President of the International AIDS Society. He was speaking during a symposia dedicated to a special issue of The Lancet, published to coincide with the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) in Durban, South Africa, containing a comprehensive series of reviews on HIV and related infections in prisoners.

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Prisoners, prisons, and HIV: time for reform

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Yes
Author
Chris Beyrer, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Martin McKee

Prisoners and detainees worldwide have higher burdens of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis than the communities from which they come. This disease burden among prisoners has been recognised since the early years of these inter-related pandemics. Yet the health needs of prisoners receive little attention from researchers or advocates working to improve responses for these diseases, and scant funding for prevention or treatment interventions.

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