multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB)

Transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-endemic settings

Author
Palwasha Y Khan, PhD; Tom A Yates, PhD; Muhammad Osman, MSc; Prof Robin M Warren, PhD; Yuri van der Heijden, MD; Nesri Padayatchi, PhD; et al.

The emergence and expansion of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic is a threat to the global control of tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is the result of the selection of resistance-conferring mutations during inadequate antituberculosis treatment. However, HIV has a profound effect on the natural history of tuberculosis, manifesting in an increased rate of disease progression, leading to increased transmission and amplification of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Interventions specific to HIV-endemic areas are urgently needed to block tuberculosis transmission.

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High rates of death and loss to follow-up by 12 months of rifampicin resistant TB treatment in South Africa

Author
Kamban Hirasen, Rebecca Berhanu, Denise Evans, Sydney Rosen, Ian Sanne, Lawrence Long
Treatment success rates of rifampicin resistant (RR)/multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in South Africa range from 43–48%, falling short of the World Health Organization’s target of ≥75%. We present rates and assess predictors of attrition by 12 months on treatment.
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Estimating the future burden of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in India, the Philippines, Russia, and South Africa: a mathematical modelling study

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Yes
Author
Sharma, Aditya et al.

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis are emerging worldwide. The Green Light Committee initiative supported programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in 90 countries. We used estimates from the Preserving Effective TB Treatment Study to predict MDR and XDR tuberculosis trends in four countries with a high burden of MDR tuberculosis: India, the Philippines, Russia, and South Africa.

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Drug-resistant TB: A Growing Global Health Threat

Emerging superbugs that can resist even the most powerful antibiotics and medical treatments present one of the biggest global health threats in history.

When manifested in a simple throat infection, a lingering stomach bug or a serious disease like tuberculosis, resistance to medicine is tremendously threatening. Global development partners must move faster to contain the threat of antimicrobial resistance before it escalates to claim millions of lives around the world.

Author
Jon Lomøy and Mark Dybul
Source
The Global Fund

World TB Day collection

Is the resource available on the Internet?
Yes
Author
Elsevier

Although the number of deaths worldwide from tuberculosis—a disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis—fell by 22% between 2000 and 2015, it remains humanity’s biggest infectious killer and one of the top ten causes of all deaths. The 2016 WHO Global Tuberculosis Report estimated that in 2015 there were 10.4 million new tuberculosis cases and 1.4 million deaths. The interaction between tuberculosis and HIV is important, with an estimated 400 000 additional deaths occurring among people with co-infection.

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High rates of multidrug-resistant and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis among re-treatment cases: where do they come from?

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Yes
Author
Romain Ragonnet, James M. Trauer, Justin T. Denholm, Ben J. Marais and Emma S. McBryde

Globally 3.9% of new and 21% of re-treatment tuberculosis (TB) cases are multidrug-resistant or rifampicin-resistant (MDR/RR), which is often interpreted as evidence that drug resistance results mainly from poor treatment adherence. This study aims to assess the respective contributions of the different causal pathways leading to MDR/RR-TB at re-treatment.

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U.S. Government Roles in Control of Global Tuberculosis: Opportunities for Strengthening Program Effectiveness

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Yes
Author
Phillip Nieburg, Audrey Jackson

Over the first 15 years of this century, as efforts against the “big three” global infectious diseases — HIV, malaria and tuberculosis — accelerated, the numbers of new HIV infections dropped by 32 percent, and the number of deaths caused by the virus declined by 31 percent. Malaria infections dropped by 18 percent, and deaths from that disease went down by 48 percent.

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