Supply-side dimensions and dynamics of integrating HIV testing and counselling into routine antenatal care: a facility assessment from Morogoro Region, Tanzania
Every year, millions of young children continue to die of preventable diseases. Immunizations are one of the best ways to protect these children, yet one out of five infants—many from the poorest, hardest to reach, and most vulnerable families—are not vaccinated. At the same time, pneumonia and diarrhea claim the lives of 2 million children each year who do not receive the simple, lifesaving treatment they need. These two diseases alone are responsible for 29 percent of deaths in children under age 5.
Clean water, nutritious food, and a hygienic environment -- these are the building blocks of health for any community. Yet, these necessities are out of reach for many families in low-resource environments. As a result, malnutrition contributes to 45 percent of childhood deaths worldwide. Combined with micronutrient deficiencies, malnourishment stunts children’s physical and cognitive development, the consequences of which are life-long.
Each year the world continues to lose almost 300,000 mothers as a result of preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Another 6.6 million deaths occur among children under age 5, of which 44 percent occur during the first month of life. The first 48 hours after birth are the most critical, with almost half of newborn deaths occurring within the first 24 hours of life. Yet for millions of mothers in low-resource settings, antenatal care is not routine, births are unattended, and postpartum care is non-existent.
In guidelines released in 2010, the World Health Organization recommends that health facilities integrate prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) with maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) services to improve patient follow-up and adherence. This report describes the results of an assessment conducted across 70 randomly sampled PMTCT facilities in 14 regions of Tanzania, and the effect of integration on health quality.