HIV-TB co-infection

Constructing care cascades for active tuberculosis: A strategy for program monitoring and identifying gaps in quality of care

Author
Ramnath Subbaraman, Ruvandhi R. Nathavitharana, Kenneth H. Mayer, Srinath Satyanarayana, Vineet K. Chadha, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Madhukar Pai

The cascade of care is a model for evaluating patient retention across sequential stages of care required to achieve a successful treatment outcome. This approach was first used to evaluate HIV care and has since been applied to other diseases. The tuberculosis (TB) community has only recently started using care cascade analyses to quantify gaps in quality of care. In this article, we describe methods for estimating gaps (patient losses) and steps (patients retained) in the care cascade for active TB disease.

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Transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-endemic settings

Author
Palwasha Y Khan, PhD; Tom A Yates, PhD; Muhammad Osman, MSc; Prof Robin M Warren, PhD; Yuri van der Heijden, MD; Nesri Padayatchi, PhD; et al.

The emergence and expansion of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic is a threat to the global control of tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is the result of the selection of resistance-conferring mutations during inadequate antituberculosis treatment. However, HIV has a profound effect on the natural history of tuberculosis, manifesting in an increased rate of disease progression, leading to increased transmission and amplification of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Interventions specific to HIV-endemic areas are urgently needed to block tuberculosis transmission.

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It’s Time to Accelerate the TB Response

The first-ever UN high level meeting on tuberculosis (TB) on 26 September 2018 in New York was a crucial political moment for TB. It resulted in an endorsement of the first UN Political Declaration on TB [1], specifying prevention and treatment targets and commitments to mobilizing additional resources for the TB response, including research and development.

Author
Sharonann Lynch, HIV & TB Policy Advisor, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Access Campaign
Source
Differentiated Service Delivery Blog

Associated factors with unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcomes among tuberculosis/HIV coinfected patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis

Author
Azeez, A., et al.

BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, HIV endemic has substantially contributed to the increasing tuberculosis (TB) incidence. The joint effect of the HIV and TB pestilences has confronted the feeble systems of healthcare in resource-limited countries.

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Updated recommendations on first-line and second-line antiretroviral regimens and post-exposure prophylaxis and recommendations on early infant diagnosis of HIV: interim guidance

Author
World Health Organization
Since 2016, WHO has recommended tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) + lamivudine (3TC) (or emtricitabine, FTC) + efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg as the preferred first- line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for adults and adolescents. WHO recommended dolutegravir (DTG) as an alternative option to EFV for first-line ART because of the uncertainty regarding the safety and efficacy of DTG during pregnancy and among people living with HIV receiving rifampicin-based tuberculosis (TB) treatment. New WHO interim guidelines contain recommendations regarding preferred first-line regimens for adults, adolescents and children initiating ART, which now include DTG and RAL.
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Sustainable survival for adolescents living with HIV: do SDG‐aligned provisions reduce potential mortality risk?

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Yes
Author
Lucie Cluver, Marija Pantelic, Mark Orkin, Elona Toska, Sally Medley, Lorraine Sherr

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present a groundbreaking global development agenda to protect the most vulnerable. Adolescents living with HIV in Sub‐Saharan Africa continue to experience extreme health vulnerabilities, but we know little about the impacts of SDG‐aligned provisions on their health. This study tests associations of provisions aligned with five SDGs with potential mortality risks. 

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Good Practice Guide: Community-based TB and HIV integration

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Yes
Author
Gitau Mburu and D’Arcy Richardson

This guide will provide you with practical information and tools you need to get started working on TB.

It provides you with easy-to-understand information on TB/HIV, highlights the kinds of TB/HIV activities community organisations can support, discusses how to engage effectively with your national TB programme and shows how you can fund and monitor your TB activities.

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Assessing TB infection control practices in Malawi: research application and implications for the regional response

Tuberculosis (TB) is the 9th leading cause of death worldwide.1 While TB mortality and incidence are decreasing, there are still significant gaps in detection and treatment.2 One in four new TB cases occurred in Africa in 2016, and co-infection with HIV is a notable challenge, with 34% of those infected with TB on the continent also living with HIV.3 While people living with HIV are a particularly vulnerable population due to their compromised immunity, health care workers (HCWs) are also at higher risk due to frequent and sustained exposure to th

Author
Tingathe Outreach Program, Baylor College of Medicine Children's Foundation-Malawi
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