In East and Southern Africa, where 5% to 10% have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains unacceptably high. This introduces challenges and opportunities for implementation of HBV care and treatment. We now describe new HIV diagnoses made within an HBV monoinfection cohort in Zambia and their relevance to broader HBV policy implementation.
HIV prevention strategies
An Incentive-Based and Community Health Worker Package Intervention to Improve Early Utilization of Antenatal Care: Evidence from a Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial
There has been a proliferation of organizations in Zambia touting the mobilization of traditional games as a tool to prevent HIV. However, there is a dearth of evidence on how culturally important activities like traditional games are being incorporated into programing. The purpose of this study was to explore how traditional games are used as a strategy to prevent HIV in Zambia. This qualitative study generated data from 17 case studies of HIV programs operating in Lusaka, Zambia. Observations of the programs were conducted and 44 interviews with program staff were completed.
Adolescent female school dropouts who use drugs and engage in risky sex: Effects of a brief pilot intervention in Cape Town, South Africa
Female adolescents from socioeconomically underserved communities in Cape Town, South Africa, who have dropped out of school, use substances, and engage in risky sex behaviour are at risk of HIV. Tailored gender-focused HIV behavioural interventions for this key population are needed to mitigate these risk factors. A pilot trial of a woman-focused risk-reduction intervention for adolescents was conducted (N = 100), with a one-month follow-up appointment. Participants in the intervention group attended two group workshops.
Increased Risk of HIV Acquisition Among Women Throughout Pregnancy and During the Postpartum Period: A Prospective Per-Coital-Act Analysis Among Women With HIV-Infected Partners
Understanding the absolute and relative risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) acquisition during pregnancy and the postpartum period can inform HIV prevention strategies for women.
We used a complementary log-log model and data from 2751 HIV-serodiscordant couples to compare the probability of HIV acquisition among women per sex act during early pregnancy, late pregnancy, the postpartum period, and the nonpregnant period.
The development of antiretroviral drugs for HIV has dramatically reduced disease burden for millions of people with access to adequate treatment and prevention programs. However, UNAIDS reports that 25 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa are still living with HIV, accounting for more than two-thirds of the infected population worldwide, and that women (aged 15-24) in this region are disproportionately impacted. Importantly, the number of young women at the cusp of this age range is currently very high, placing us at an important juncture.
Couple HIV Counseling and Testing (CHCT) is one of the key preventive strategies used to reduce the spread of HIV. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among married/living together is 7.2% among women and 7.6% among men. CHCT can help ease disclosure of HIV-positive status, which in turn may help increase opportunities to get social support and reduce new infections. The uptake of CHCT among attendees of health facilities in rural Uganda is as high as 34%. The purpose of this study was to explore the motivators of CHCT uptake in Mukono district, a rural setting in Uganda.
Recently the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and WHO expressed interest in using geographical targeting strategies when implementing interventions for reducing HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. If geographical targeting is used, a disproportionate amount of the resources that are available for prevention will be allocated to geographical locations where HIV prevalence is substantially higher than average.
HIV testing self-efficacy is associated with higher HIV testing frequency and perceived likelihood to self-test among gay and bisexual men
Regular testing of individuals at higher-risk of HIV is central to current prevention strategies. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which confidence in one's perceived ability to undertake various aspects of HIV testing and self-testing (self-efficacy) affected HIV testing outcomes. We assessed factors, including self-efficacy, associated with HIV testing frequency and the likelihood to self-test among gay and bisexual men (GBM).