hepatitis B

Hepatitis B Therapy as HIV Prevention in Africa: A Case Series From Zambia

In East and Southern Africa, where 5% to 10% have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains unacceptably high. This introduces challenges and opportunities for implementation of HBV care and treatment. We now describe new HIV diagnoses made within an HBV monoinfection cohort in Zambia and their relevance to broader HBV policy implementation.

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Global prevalence of injecting drug use and sociodemographic characteristics and prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV in people who inject drugs: a multistage systematic review

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Yes
Author
Degenhardt L, Peacock A, Colledge S, Leung J, Grebely J, Vickerman P, Stone J, Cunningham EB, Trickey A, Dumchev K, Lynskey M, Griffiths P, Mattick RP, Hickman M, Larney S

Sharing of equipment used for injecting drug use (IDU) is a substantial cause of disease burden and a contributor to blood-borne virus transmission. We did a global multistage systematic review to identify the prevalence of IDU among people aged 15-64 years; sociodemographic characteristics of and risk factors for people who inject drugs (PWID); and the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among PWID.

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HIV and hepatitis B and C co-infection among people who inject drugs in Zanzibar

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Yes
Author
Khatib A, Matiko E, Khalid F, Welty S, Ali A, Othman A, Haji S, Dahoma M, Rutherford G

People who inject drugs are at high risk of acquiring hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to risky injection and sexual practices. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, and co-infection of these viruses among people who inject drugs in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

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Predominance of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype A Among Treated HIV Infected Patients Experiencing High Hepatitis B Virus Drug Resistance in Nairobi, Kenya

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Yes
Author
Mabeya Sepha Nyatichi, Ngugi Caroline, Lihana Raphael Wekesa, Khamadi Samoel Ashimosi, and Nyamache Anthony Kebira

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)–HIV coinfections are becoming common with information on HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance still remaining elusive. To evaluate the HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance-associated mutations among drug-experienced HIV patients, the genetic analysis of the partial HBV-pol-reverse trancriptase gene was successfully sequenced from 13 samples. Analysis of the sequences showed that all (11) the sequences belonged to genotype A. Nucleos(t)ide drug resistance mutations were found in 6 patients.

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Hepatitis B incidence and prevention with antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive individuals in Uganda

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Yes
Author
Seremba, Emmanuel; Ssempijja, Victor; Kalibbala, Sarah; Gray, Ronald H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Nalugoda, Fred; Casper, Corey; Phipps, Warren; Ocama, Ponsiano; Serwadda, David; Thomas, David L.; Reynolds, Steven J.

Objective: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) may interfere with replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV), raising the hypothesis that HBV infection might be prevented by ART. We investigated the incidence and risk factors associated with HBV among HIV-infected adults in Rakai, Uganda.

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Prevention of transmission of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis in prisoners

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Yes
Author
Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Stewart E Reid, Amee Schwitters, Lucas Wiessing, Nabila El-Bassel, Kate Dolan, Babak Moazen, Andrea L Wirtz, Annette Verster and Frederick L Altice

The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis are higher in prisons than in the general population in most countries worldwide. Prisons have emerged as a risk environment for these infections to be further concentrated, amplified, and then transmitted to the community after prisoners are released. In the absence of alternatives to incarceration, prisons and detention facilities could be leveraged to promote primary and secondary prevention strategies for these infections to improve prisoners health and reduce risk throughout incarceration and on release.

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Clinical care of incarcerated people with HIV, viral hepatitis, or tuberculosis

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Yes
Author
Josiah D Rich, Curt G Beckwith, Alexandria Macmadu, Brandon D L Marshall, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Joseph J Amon, M-J Milloy, Maximilian R F King, Jorge Sanchez, Lukoye Atwoli, and Frederick L Altice

The burden of HIV/AIDS and other transmissible diseases is higher in prison and jail settings than in the non-incarcerated communities that surround them. In this comprehensive review, we discuss available literature on the topic of clinical management of people infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, and tuberculosis in incarcerated settings in addition to co-occurrence of one or more of these infections.

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Global burden of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis in prisoners and detainees

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Yes
Author
Kate Dolan, Andrea L Wirtz, Babak Moazen, Martial Ndeffo-mbah, Alison Galvani, Stuart A Kinner, Ryan Courtney, Martin McKee, Joseph J Amon, Lisa Maher, Margaret Hellard, Chris Beyrer and Fredrick L Altice

The prison setting presents not only challenges, but also opportunities, for the prevention and treatment of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis. We did a comprehensive literature search of data published between 2005 and 2015 to understand the global epidemiology of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and tuberculosis in prisoners. We further modelled the contribution of imprisonment and the potential impact of prevention interventions on HIV transmission in this population.

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