geographic information system (GIS)
The recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa clearly demonstrated the critical role of laboratory systems and networks in responding to epidemics. Because of the huge challenges in establishing functional laboratories at all tiers of health systems in developing countries, strengthening specimen referral networks is critical. In this review article, we propose a platform strategy for developing specimen referral networks based on 2 models: centralized and decentralized laboratory specimen referral networks.
Recently the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and WHO expressed interest in using geographical targeting strategies when implementing interventions for reducing HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. If geographical targeting is used, a disproportionate amount of the resources that are available for prevention will be allocated to geographical locations where HIV prevalence is substantially higher than average.