When sick children arrive at primary health care (PHC) facilities, it is critical that they are appropriately screened, diagnosed, and managed, and if needed, referred to urgent care without delay. Clinical signs alone do not detect all indicators of severe illness in children. In order for health care workers to make the right diagnosis, they must be equipped with the right tools and training, including access to and training for pulse oximeters and clinical decision support tools.
In 2017, tuberculosis caused an estimated 1·6 million deaths, including 300 000 deaths among people with HIV, and surpassed HIV/AIDS to become the leading infectious cause of mortality worldwide. Approximately 36% of tuberculosis cases each year (around 3·5 million cases) are not diagnosed or reported, which might have contributed to the increase in tuberculosis prevalence.
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the primary diagnostic tools for HIV used in resource-constrained settings. Without a proper confirmation algorithm, there is concern that false-positive (FP) RDTs could result in misdiagnosis of HIV infection and inappropriate antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation, but programmatic data on FP are few.
Study: Early intensified treatment boosted drug-resistant TB meningitis survival, but detection remains challenged
Despite improvements in PMTCT services in low- and middle-income countries, there are still almost 200,000 new paediatric HIV infections annually in sub-Saharan Africa. This has led to early infant HIV diagnosis (EID) programmes becoming a public health priority, but until recently, EID has required specialist laboratory equipment and trained personnel which is only feasible in urban, centralized facilities.