co-infections

Fungal infections in HIV/AIDS

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Yes
Author
Andrew H Limper, Antoine Adenis, Thuy Le, Thomas S Harrison

Fungi are major contributors to the opportunistic infections that affect patients with HIV/AIDS. Systemic infections are mainly with Pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumocystosis), Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis), Histoplasma capsulatum (histoplasmosis), and Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei (talaromycosis). The incidence of systemic fungal infections has decreased in people with HIV in high-income countries because of the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs and early testing for HIV.

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The road to elimination of hepatitis C: analysis of cures versus new infections in 91 countries

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Yes
Author
Andrew M Hill, Sanjay Nath, and Bryony Simmons

Hepatitis C (HCV) can only be eradicated if annual rates of cure (SVR) are consistently and significantly higher than new HCV infections, across many countries. In 2016, the WHO called for a 90% reduction in new HCV infection by 2030. Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) can cure the majority of those treated, at around 90% in most populations, at potentially very low prices. We compared the net annual change in epidemic size across 91 countries using data on SVR, new HCV infections, and deaths.

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Enhanced Prophylaxis plus Antiretroviral Therapy for Advanced HIV Infection in Africa

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Yes
Author
Hakim, J., Musiime, V., Szubert, A.J., et al.

This multi-country trial examined outcomes among treatment-naïve adults and children with CD4 counts below 100 who were given enhanced antimicrobial prophylaxis including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, isoniazid-pyridoxine, fluconazole, azithromycin, and albendazole in addition to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Among the 1,806 patients enrolled in the trial, 906 were randomized to the enhanced prophylaxis group and 899 were randomized to the standard prophylaxis group.

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Effect of HSV-2 infection on subsequent HIV acquisition: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

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Yes
Author
Katharine J Looker, Jocelyn A R Elmes, Sami L Gottlieb, Joshua T Schiffer, Peter Vickerman, Katherine M E Turner, Marie-Claude Boily

HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections cause a substantial global disease burden and are epidemiologically correlated. Two previous systematic reviews of the association between HSV-2 and HIV found evidence that HSV-2 infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition, but these reviews are now more than a decade old.

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Guidelines for the managing advanced HIV disease and rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy

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Yes
Author
World Health Organization

The objectives of these guidelines are to provide recommendations outlining a public health approach to managing people presenting with advanced HIV disease, and to provide guidance on the timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all people living with HIV.

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HIV viral load as an independent risk factor for tuberculosis in South Africa: collaborative analysis of cohort studies

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Yes
Author
Fenner, L., Atkinson, A., Boulle, A., Fox, M., Prozesky, H., Zürcher, K., Ballif, M., Furrer, H., Zwahlen, M., Davies, M., Egger, M.

Chronic immune activation due to ongoing HIV replication may lead to impaired immune responses against opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis (TB). We studied the role of HIV replication as a risk factor for incident TB after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART).

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Global burden of disease of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: an updated analysis

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Yes
Author
Radha Rajasingham, Rachel M Smith, Benjamin J Park, Joseph N Jarvis, Nelesh P Govender, Tom M Chiller, David W Denning, Angela Loyse, David R Boulware

Cryptococcus is the most common cause of meningitis in adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Global burden estimates are crucial to guide prevention strategies and to determine treatment needs, and we aimed to provide an updated estimate of global incidence of HIV-associated cryptococcal disease.

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