CD4 cell count
'Good health' as a barrier and facilitator to ART initiation: a qualitative study in the era of test-and-treat in Mozambique
Global Trends in CD4 Cell Count at the Start of Antiretroviral Therapy: Collaborative Study of Treatment Programs
Early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), at higher CD4 cell counts, prevents disease progression and reduces sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We describe the temporal trends in CD4 cell counts at the start of cART in adults from low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income countries (LICs, LMICs, UMICs, and HICs, respectively).
Study finds more than half of patients worldwide don’t access HIV treatment until immune systems are severely compromised
Objective: To estimate time from HIV infection to linkage-to-care and its determinants. Linkage-to-care is usually assessed using the date of HIV diagnosis as the starting point for exposure time. However, timing of diagnosis is likely endogenous to linkage, leading to bias in linkage estimation.
Impact of Age and Sex on CD4+ Cell Count Trajectories following Treatment Initiation: An Analysis of the Tanzanian HIV Treatment Database
New guidelines recommend that all HIV-infected individuals initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART) immediately following diagnosis. This study describes how immune reconstitution varies by gender and age to help identify poorly reconstituting subgroups and inform targeted testing initiatives.
The HIV virus infects and destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) cells, a type of immune cell that plays a key role in maintaining the human immune system and fighting off disease.
Also called T-helper cells, CD4+ cells are responsible for instructing other cells of the immune system to perform their specific functions. At the time of infection with HIV, the higher the number of CD4+ cells that become damaged, the weaker the immune system becomes and the less able a person is to fight off infection and disease. Eventually, this results in the development of AIDS.
POC CD4 Testing Improves Linkage to HIV Care and Timeliness of ART Initiation in a Public Health Approach: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
CD4 cell count is an important test in HIV programs for baseline risk assessment, monitoring of ART where viral load is not available, and, in many settings, antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation decisions. However, access to CD4 testing is limited, in part due to the centralized conventional laboratory network. Point of care (POC) CD4 testing has the potential to address some of the challenges of centralized CD4 testing and delays in delivery of timely testing and ART initiation.
Many South African patients whose HIV has been diagnosed have unprotected sex with a serodiscordant partner before starting ART
Global epidemiology of drug resistance after failure of WHO recommended first-line regimens for adult HIV-1 infection: a multicentre retrospective cohort study
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for controlling HIV-1 infection through wide-scale treatment as prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Potent tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing regimens are increasingly used to treat and prevent HIV, although few data exist for frequency and risk factors of acquired drug resistance in regions hardest hit by the HIV pandemic. We aimed to do a global assessment of drug resistance after virological failure with first-line tenofovir-containing ART.