The transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in high burden settings

Dr Tom A Yates, MSc, Palwasha Y Khan, MBBCh, Gwenan M Knight, PhD, Jonathon G Taylor, PhD, Prof Timothy D McHugh, PhD, Marc Lipman, MD, Richard G White, PhD, Ted Cohen, MD, Prof Frank G Cobelens, PhD, Prof Robin Wood, DSc [Med], Prof

Unacceptable levels of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission are noted in high burden settings and a renewed focus on reducing person-to-person transmission in these communities is needed. We review recent developments in the understanding of airborne transmission. We outline approaches to measure transmission in populations and trials and describe the Wells–Riley equation, which is used to estimate transmission risk in indoor spaces. Present research priorities include the identification of effective strategies for tuberculosis infection control, improved understanding of where transmission occurs and the transmissibility of drug-resistant strains, and estimates of the effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on transmission dynamics. When research is planned and interventions are designed to interrupt transmission, resource constraints that are common in high burden settings—including shortages of health-care workers—must be considered.

February 2, 2016
Year of publication
2016
Resource types
Journal and research articles, Reports and Fact sheets
Tags
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, high-burden settings, airborne transmission, Wells–Riley equation, infection control, antiretroviral therapy, ARVs, ART, treatment, HIV, TB, tuberculosis, antiretroviral drugs, drug-resistant TB

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