The transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in high burden settings

Dr Tom A Yates, MSc, Palwasha Y Khan, MBBCh, Gwenan M Knight, PhD, Jonathon G Taylor, PhD, Prof Timothy D McHugh, PhD, Marc Lipman, MD, Richard G White, PhD, Ted Cohen, MD, Prof Frank G Cobelens, PhD, Prof Robin Wood, DSc [Med], Prof

Unacceptable levels of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission are noted in high burden settings and a renewed focus on reducing person-to-person transmission in these communities is needed. We review recent developments in the understanding of airborne transmission. We outline approaches to measure transmission in populations and trials and describe the Wells–Riley equation, which is used to estimate transmission risk in indoor spaces. Present research priorities include the identification of effective strategies for tuberculosis infection control, improved understanding of where transmission occurs and the transmissibility of drug-resistant strains, and estimates of the effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on transmission dynamics. When research is planned and interventions are designed to interrupt transmission, resource constraints that are common in high burden settings—including shortages of health-care workers—must be considered.

February 2, 2016
Year of publication
2016
Resource types
Journal and research articles, Reports and Fact sheets
Tags
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, high-burden settings, airborne transmission, Wells–Riley equation, infection control, antiretroviral therapy, ARVs, ART, treatment, HIV, TB, tuberculosis, antiretroviral drugs, drug-resistant TB

Similar Resources

This issue of the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society's "HIV Nursing Matters" online magazine focuses on vulnerable populations, including TB in prisons and intimate partner violence in the context of HIV.

This issue of the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society's "HIV Nursing Matters" online magazine focuses on key populations.

The Southern African HIV Clinicians Society’s biannual conference, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 24-27 October 2018, focused on clinical content for HIV and TB health care workers in the region and featured a wide range of topics…

South Africa has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis in the world. In the past decade, the number of cases of XDR tuberculosis has increased by a factor of 10, to more than 1500 cases in 2012.

Fungi are major contributors to the opportunistic infections that affect patients with HIV/AIDS.

HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a threat to future antiretroviral therapy success. Monitoring HIVDR patterns is of particular importance in populations such as sex workers (SWs), where documented HIV prevalence is between 34-89%, and in countries with limited therapeutic options.

The emergence and expansion of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic is a threat to the global control of tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is the result of the selection of resistance-conferring mutations during inadequate antituberculosis treatment.

This supplement to Acta Paediatrica presents a series of meta-analyses and systematic literature reviews examining a variety of health effects potentially related to breastfeeding.

The recently completed HIV prevention trials network study 052 is a landmark collaboration demonstrating that HIV transmission in discordant couples can be dramatically reduced by treating the infected individual with antiretroviral therapy (ART).

The Cochrane Library (ISSN 1465-1858) is a collection of six databases that contain different types of high-quality, independent evidence to inform healthcare decision-making, and a seventh database that provides information about Cochrane groups.