Transmission of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in South Africa

N. Sarita Shah et al.

South Africa has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis in the world. In the past decade, the number of cases of XDR tuberculosis has increased by a factor of 10, to more than 1500 cases in 2012. Compounding the tuberculosis epidemic is the concurrent epidemic of HIV infection; rates of coinfection exceed 70%, and rates of long-term survival among patients with XDR tuberculosis and HIV infection are less than 20%. In this study, we sought to quantify the role of transmission and to elucidate how and where transmission is occurring. We combined traditional epidemiologic tools with social-network, geospatial, and genotyping methods to describe population-level transmission of XDR tuberculosis.

January 24, 2017
Year of publication
2017
Resource types
Journal and research articles
Countries
Tags
South Africa, tuberculosis, TB, drug-resistant TB, co-infection, HIV-TB co-infection, extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), TB transmission

Similar Resources

According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries.

BACKGROUND:

Attrition along the HIV care continuum slows gains in mitigating the South African HIV epidemic. Understanding population-level gaps in HIV identification, linkage, retention in care and viral suppression is critical to target programming.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) that enables suppression of HIV replication has been successfully rolled out at large scale to HIV-positive patients in low-income and middle-income countries.

HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a threat to future antiretroviral therapy success. Monitoring HIVDR patterns is of particular importance in populations such as sex workers (SWs), where documented HIV prevalence is between 34-89%, and in countries with limited therapeutic options.

Remarkable progress is being made on HIV treatment. Ahead of World AIDS Day, UNAIDS has launched a new report showing that access to treatment has risen significantly. In 2000, just 685 000 people living with HIV had access to antiretroviral therapy.

The Southern African HIV Clinicians Society’s biannual conference, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 24-27 October 2018, focused on clinical content for HIV and TB health care workers in the region and featured a wide range of topics…

The Cochrane Library (ISSN 1465-1858) is a collection of six databases that contain different types of high-quality, independent evidence to inform healthcare decision-making, and a seventh database that provides information about Cochrane groups.

This issue of the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society's "HIV Nursing Matters" online magazine focuses on vulnerable populations, including TB in prisons and intimate partner violence in the context of HIV.

This issue of the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society's "HIV Nursing Matters" online magazine focuses on key populations.

Adolescents newly diagnosed with HIV need to be rapidly incorporated into HIV care networks to have the best chances of remaining in care in the long term, research from the United States published in the June 1st edition of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes shows.