Testing in the HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) campaign, HIV risk behaviours and ART enrolment in South Africa

D. Onoya, N. Mohlabane, V. Maduna, J. van Zyl, R. Sewpaul, Y. Naidoo


To examine the association between testing in the 2010 HIV Testing and Counselling (HCT) campaign with HIV risk behaviours and enrolment on ART.

Study design

Data for this study were collected as part of a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey conducted in 2012 in South Africa.


Consenting participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a dry blood spot specimen which was tested for HIV antibodies and antiretroviral drugs. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between HIV testing history and explanatory variables of interest.


There was no association between testing in the 2010 HCT campaign and condom use at last sex, number of sexual partnerships or HIV knowledge. Individuals who tested in the HCT campaign were more likely to disclose their status (COR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.71–3.8) and those who tested HIV positive in the campaign were more likely to be receiving ART (COR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–2.9). Testing in the HCT campaign was associated with having received both pretest and post-test counselling while testing before the campaign was associated with having received HIV results with no counselling (COR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2–3.8).


We highlight the success of the 2010 HCT campaign in improving HIV status disclosure and enrolment on ART as well as shortcomings on HIV risk behaviours and HIV knowledge. These may be related to issues of quality assurance in the counselling process. Our results further highlight possible HCT counselling inconsistencies across sectors requiring stronger public-private partnership in the delivery of HCT in South Africa.

June 20, 2016
Year of publication
Resource types
Journal and research articles, Reports and Fact sheets
HIV prevention, HIV testing, South Africa, treatment, condom use, HIV counseling and testing (HCT), ART, ART enrolment, HIV risk behaviors, antiretroviral therapy, research, ARVs, HIV, antiretroviral drugs

Similar Resources


Attrition along the HIV care continuum slows gains in mitigating the South African HIV epidemic. Understanding population-level gaps in HIV identification, linkage, retention in care and viral suppression is critical to target programming.

HIV infection continues to pose a critical risk to health in many countries. UNAIDS estimates that as of 2016 the total HIV-infected population was 36.7 million, including 1.8 million people newly infected that year.

This issue of the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society's "HIV Nursing Matters" online magazine focuses on vulnerable populations, including TB in prisons and intimate partner violence in the context of HIV.

This issue of the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society's "HIV Nursing Matters" online magazine focuses on key populations.

Many countries are working to reduce or eliminate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Prevention efforts have been conceptualized as steps in a cascade but cascade completion rates during and after pregnancy are low.

The following abstract was presented as part of a poster dicussion session on viral reservoirs at the 9th IAS Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2017).

With the goal of eliminating new HIV infections, UNAIDS set the ambitious 90-90-90 targets to be achieved by 2020. We assessed whether these targets are being met among participants of the HIV Incidence Provincial Surveillance System (HIPSS) in a high-burden district of South Africa.

South Africa has the largest number of individuals living with HIV and the largest antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme worldwide. In September 2016, ART eligibility was extended to all 7.1 million HIV-positive South Africans.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) that enables suppression of HIV replication has been successfully rolled out at large scale to HIV-positive patients in low-income and middle-income countries.