Shedding light on a HIV blind spot: Factors associated with men's HIV testing in five African countries
Men's relatively low rates of HIV testing has been termed the 'HIV blind spot' and recently declared by UNAIDS as a top priority. This study uses data from five nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe to explore factors associated with men's lifetime HIV testing. Between 29.3% and 34.9% of men ages 15-49 in these countries had never tested for HIV and men who held accepting attitudes towards gender-based violence, who lacked HIV knowledge, and who held stigmatising views of HIV were more likely to report never testing for HIV. Findings are interpreted, including a discussion of the possible unintended consequences of current 90-90-90 targets on men's relatively low testing rates. The results point to possible intervention opportunities to increase HIV testing among men in high-HIV prevalence settings in Eastern and Southern Africa and emphasise the importance of changing men's perceptions related to stigma and gender norms.