Clinical care of incarcerated people with HIV, viral hepatitis, or tuberculosis

Josiah D Rich, Curt G Beckwith, Alexandria Macmadu, Brandon D L Marshall, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Joseph J Amon, M-J Milloy, Maximilian R F King, Jorge Sanchez, Lukoye Atwoli, and Frederick L Altice

The burden of HIV/AIDS and other transmissible diseases is higher in prison and jail settings than in the non-incarcerated communities that surround them. In this comprehensive review, we discuss available literature on the topic of clinical management of people infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, and tuberculosis in incarcerated settings in addition to co-occurrence of one or more of these infections. Methods such as screening practices and provision of treatment during detainment periods are reviewed to identify the effect of community-based treatment when returning inmates into the general population. Where data are available, we describe differences in the provision of medical care in the prison and jail settings of low-income and middle-income countries compared with high-income countries. Structural barriers impede the optimal delivery of clinical care for prisoners, and substance use, mental illness, and infectious disease further complicate the delivery of care. For prison health care to reach the standards of community-based health care, political will and financial investment are required from governmental, medical, and humanitarian organisations worldwide. In this review, we highlight challenges, gaps in knowledge, and priorities for future research to improve health-care in institutions for prisoners.

This is the second in a Series of six papers about HIV and related infections in prisoners.

September 12, 2016
Year of publication
2016
Resource types
Briefs, Case studies and success stories, Journal and research articles, Reports and Fact sheets, Systematic reviews
Tags
prison settings, prisons, prisoners, HIV, viral hepatitis, key populations, HIV prevention, tuberculosis, TB, HCV, HBV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, intraprison transmission, people who inject drugs (PWID), injecting drug users (IDUs), prison populations, criminalization of drug use, clinical management, incarcerated settings, co-infections, treatment, jail settings, structural barriers, access to care

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