Despite advances in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death and illness among people living with HIV. In 2015, an estimated 1.2 million of the people who developed tuberculosis disease worldwide were HIV positive, and tuberculosis was the direct cause of at least one third of HIV related deaths. The 2015 “Treat All” strategy requires that everyone with HIV is offered antiretroviral therapy (ART) as soon as they are diagnosed. By treating HIV infections earlier, this strategy should mitigate the HIV-associated tuberculosis epidemic, but it alone is not sufficient to eliminate preventable tuberculosis suffering and deaths among people living with HIV. The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend differentiated HIV service delivery, which is intended to facilitate the “Treat All” strategy by tailoring services to the differing needs of individuals. As HIV programmes adopt these WHO guidelines, tuberculosis also needs to be addressed.