Resource Library

This study hypothesized that mass distribution of a broad-spectrum antibiotic agent to preschool children would reduce mortality in areas of sub-Saharan Africa that are currently far from meeting the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations.

In this cluster-randomized trial,…

Refugees living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa suffer unique hardships that may increase their vulnerability to interruptions in antiretroviral therapy (ART). To investigate refugees' experiences adhering to ART, we conducted inperson interviews with refugees on ART (n = 73) and HIV…

Retention, defined as continuous engagement in care, is an important indicator for quality of healthcare services. To achieve UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, emphasis on retention as a predictor of viral suppression in patients initiated on ART is vital. Using routinely collected clinical data, the…

In many settings with high HIV prevalence, fertility rates are also high and women spend a significant proportion of their reproductive years pregnant, postpartum, or breastfeeding. Some, but not all, studies have demonstrated significantly higher HIV incidence during pregnancy. Per sex act…

Comparable estimates of health spending are crucial for the assessment of health systems and to optimally deploy health resources. The methods used to track health spending continue to evolve, but little is known about the distribution of spending across diseases. We developed improved estimates…

Globally, HIV disproportionately affects female sex workers (FSWs) yet HIV treatment coverage is suboptimal. To improve uptake of HIV services by FSWs, it is important to identify potential inequalities in access and use of care and their determinants. Our aim is to investigate HIV treatment…

It was estimated that 1.2 million people live with HIV/AIDS in Zambia by 2015. Zambia has developed and implemented diverse programs to reduce the prevalence in the country. HIV-testing is a critical step in HIV treatment and prevention, especially among all the key populations. However, there…

Mortality associated with in-utero HIV infection rises rapidly within weeks after birth. Very early infant diagnosis of HIV (VEID)–testing within 2 weeks of birth–followed by immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy has potential to avert mortality associated with in-utero transmission.…

Universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant/ breastfeeding women living with HIV, known as prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Option B+ (PMTCTB+), is being scaled up in most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the transition to PMTCTB+, many countries face…

Home-based care is used in many countries to increase quality of life and limit hospital stay, particularly where public health services are overburdened. Home-based care objectives for HIV/AIDS can include medical care, delivery of antiretroviral treatment and psychosocial support. This review…

Health workers – they’re more powerful than you think. They get people back on their feet and back to work. They keep businesses succeeding and economies growing. The health sector is a major and growing source of jobs. But the world is facing a shortfall of 18 million health workers by 2030.…

USAID and PEPFAR are supporting the Zambia Family (ZAMFAM) project to strengthen comprehensive, integrated service delivery and support to children living with, affected by, or vulnerable to HIV/AIDS (OVC) in the Lusaka, Copperbelt, Southern, and Central Provinces of Zambia. To inform that…

Many people living with HIV in South Africa (SA) are not aware of their seropositive status and are diagnosed late during the course of HIV infection. These individuals do not obtain the full benefit from available HIV care and treatment services. This study sought to describe the prevalence of…

April 12, 2018

UNAIDS has just relaunched its Key Populations Atlas, an online tool that provides a range of information about members of key populations worldwide, including sex workers, gay men and other men who have sex with men,…

This factsheet takes a life course approach and considers how biological, behavioural, social and structural factors during adolescence and early adulthood influence HIV outcomes and effective HIV programming strategies.

Malawi, like other countries with a generalized HIV epidemic, is striving to reach the ambitious targets set by UNAIDS known as the three 90's for testing, provision of antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression. Assisted by Malawi's progressive policies on HIV/AIDS, it appears possible that…

How can training new doctors and nurses in resource-limited countries cure more than people? With all the investments made in global health over the last decade, why are we still struggling to deliver care? Do we in fact have the model right? Beyond infrastructure and medicines, we need people…

Sharing of equipment used for injecting drug use (IDU) is a substantial cause of disease burden and a contributor to blood-borne virus transmission. We did a global multistage systematic review to identify the prevalence of IDU among people aged 15-64 years; sociodemographic characteristics of…

Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily dependent on global health initiatives (GHIs) for funding antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. There are indications that global investments for ART scale-up are flattening. It is unclear what new funding channels can bridge the funding gap for ART service…

Uganda has experienced cases of tetanus in the safe male circumcision (SMC) program for HIV prevention. Gulu district begun implementation of tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination of men prior to SMC in 2015. However, there is concern that the introduction of the vaccine in SMC may lead to reduced…

Lesotho's HIV prevalence among pregnant women is 28%. In 2013, Lesotho's Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) program adopted Option B+ and revitalized the village health worker (VHW) program to strengthen community level PMTCT. The national goal was to test 95% of HIV-exposed…

Swaziland has one of the highest adult HIV prevalence rates worldwide, 27%; with approximately 200,000 people 15 years and older living with HIV. Swaziland and many other countries in sub-Saharan Africa have adopted universal test-and-treat (UTT) policies. As the number of people needing and…

The extraordinary scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is expected to reduce the rate of new HIV infections at the population level. In this study, we calculated the incidence of HIV for males and females using data from a complete South African population.

The Africa Health Research…

Alcohol and other drug use is prevalent among peri-urban, South African adolescents. We identified correlates of alcohol and other drug use by gender among adolescents (age = 16-18 years; N = 822) in peri-urban Johannesburg. Interviewer-administered surveys assessed sexual activity, alcohol and…

People who inject drugs are at high risk of acquiring hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to risky injection and sexual practices. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, and co-infection of…

Background

Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is one of few opportunities in sub-Saharan Africa to engage male adolescents in the healthcare system. Limited data are available on the level of parental communication, engagement, and support adolescents receive…

Background

While female involvement in voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been studied among adults, little is known about the influence of adolescent females on their male counterparts. This study explored adolescent females’ involvement in VMMC decision…

Background

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have set a Fast-Track goal to achieve 90% coverage of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) among boys and men aged 10–29 years in priority settings by 2021. We…