Resource Library

The U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) delivers life-saving services to people affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in 36 country and regional programs. Founded in 2003, PEPFAR is the largest investment in combating a single disease by a single country in history. To date,…

BACKGROUND:

People living with HIV (PLHIV) are at increased risk of tuberculosis (TB). TB is also the leading opportunistic infection contributing to about one-third of deaths in this population. The World Health Organization recommends regular screening for TB in PLHIV. Those…

Objective: To study retention in care (RIC) trajectories and associated factors in patients eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a universal test-and-treat setting (TasP trial, South Africa, 2012–2016).

Design: A cluster-randomized trial whereby…

The ring introduction matrix is an early-stage implementation tool intended to help policymakers and implementers consider the introduction of the dapivirine ring alongside oral PrEP.

Background: Drug resistance is a challenge for the global control of tuberculosis. We examined mortality in patients with tuberculosis from high-burden countries, according to concordance or discordance of results from drug susceptibility testing done locally and in a reference…

Community mobilization and interpersonal communication are critical for engaging communities to create awareness and understanding about VMMC and generate demand for VMMC services. While there are other demand creation activities and approaches, such as use of mass media and social media, this…

Each year, we commemorate World Tuberculosis (TB) Day on March 24 to raise public awareness about the devastating health, social and economic consequences of TB, and to step up efforts to end the global TB epidemic. The date marks the day in 1882 when Dr Robert Koch announced that he had…

Despite advances in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death and illness among people living with HIV. In 2015, an estimated 1.2 million of the people who developed tuberculosis disease worldwide…

The cascade of care is a model for evaluating patient retention across sequential stages of care required to achieve a successful treatment outcome. This approach was first used to evaluate HIV care and has since been applied to other diseases. The tuberculosis (TB) community has only recently…

The emergence and expansion of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic is a threat to the global control of tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is the result of the selection of resistance-conferring mutations during inadequate antituberculosis treatment. However, HIV has a…

Background: Little up-to-date information is available about the costs of providing drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB) treatment to paediatric patients in South Africa (SA), nor have actual costs incurred at clinics been compared with costs expected from guidelines.

Information from community-based health programs is important for understanding what HIV programs are doing to test, treat, and retain in care people who are living with HIV. However, until now there has been no centralized registry of community-based indicators that would allow programs to…

Background: In South Africa, roughly half of the drug-resistant TB cases diagnosed are reported to have been started on treatment. We determined the proportion of persons diagnosed with rifampicin resistant (RR-) TB who initiated treatment in Johannesburg after the introduction…

One policy reform aimed at maintaining the critical role of civil society in the HIV response in concert with domestic resource mobilization efforts is the development of government-led mechanisms to finance civil society through formalized contractual channels. Such partnerships between…

Public dissemination of tools that have been created for existing PrEP demonstration projects aimed at guiding PrEP implementation for different populations can facilitate the development of ongoing and future efforts. They provide a framework upon which project coordinators can model their own…

Background: An increasingly diverse body of students is entering university in South Africa. HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are pressing health issues for this vulnerable population and the university campus offers an opportunity to intervene with health promotion activities.

We assessed the relationship between distance to clinic and progression through the HIV care cascade. We have two key findings. First, distance matters but only for women. Second, for women, distance affected linkage to care, but was not associated with later transitions in the care cascade. It…

Introduction: Treatment success rates of rifampicin resistant (RR)/multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in South Africa range from 43–48%, falling short of the World Health Organization’s target of ≥75%. We present rates and assess predictors of attrition by 12 months on…

Objective: We describe baseline characteristics, time to treatment initiation and interim patient outcomes at a decentralized, outpatient treatment site for rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB).

Methods: Prospective observational cohort study of RR-TB…

Background: Depression is a leading cause of disability and may be associated with decreased adherence to ART. We sought to describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms and outcomes one year after screening among patients receiving ART at a large HIV Clinic in Johannesburg,…

Men’s involvement in the health of their partners and children can play an important role in improving health outcomes. Many interventions in reproductive, maternal, and child health adopt strategies that seek to increase men’s positive, equitable, and supportive involvement. This study used…

Professor Quarraisha Abdool Karim is one of the world’s leading AIDS researchers and has made pioneering contributions to understanding the HIV epidemic in young people, especially among young women. She joined us for a two-part series to explain her latest research into epidemic hot spots in…

This report presents the preliminary findings from an ongoing project undertaken by 4Children that seeks to identify key opportunities to incorporate violence prevention and response interventions within priority PEPFAR Program Areas at clinical and community levels. The initial focus is on HIV…

February 5, 2019

The PrEP Costing Guidelines provide a framework for estimating the cost of providing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for preventing the acquisition of HIV infection. They are intended to provide a PrEP-specific resource for costing that could be…

Video recording of the AIDS Research Advisory Committee meeting, which took place January 28, 2019.

This seven-module training package contains a library of slides for health care providers who are providing oral PrEP to adolescent girls and young women. The slides were developed for all categories of health care providers and participatory activities are included. …

Update on recommendations on antiretroviral regimens for treating and preventing HIV infection: In 2016, WHO published the consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection and recommended tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (…

The amount of HIV in your body fluids is called your viral load. Effective HIV treatment (antiretroviral therapy) suppresses the amount of HIV in your body fluids to the point where standard tests are unable to detect any HIV, or can only find a tiny trace. Doctors call this ‘virological…