Resource Library

There is evidence of increasing levels of pretreatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) in Southern Africa. We used data from two large population-based HIV surveillance studies to estimate prevalence of PDR in KwaZulu-Natal, the province with the highest HIV prevalence in South Africa. Sanger…

The emergence and expansion of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic is a threat to the global control of tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is the result of the selection of resistance-conferring mutations during inadequate antituberculosis treatment. However, HIV has a…

The Southern African HIV Clinicians Society’s biannual conference, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 24-27 October 2018, focused on clinical content for HIV and TB health care workers in the region and featured a wide range of topics…

HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a threat to future antiretroviral therapy success. Monitoring HIVDR patterns is of particular importance in populations such as sex workers (SWs), where documented HIV prevalence is between 34-89%, and in countries with limited therapeutic options. Currently in…

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) that enables suppression of HIV replication has been successfully rolled out at large scale to HIV-positive patients in low-income and middle-income countries. WHO guidelines for these regions define failure of ART with a lenient threshold of viraemia (HIV RNA viral…

Fungi are major contributors to the opportunistic infections that affect patients with HIV/AIDS. Systemic infections are mainly with Pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumocystosis), Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis), Histoplasma capsulatum (histoplasmosis), and 

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)–HIV coinfections are becoming common with information on HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance still remaining elusive. To evaluate the HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance-associated mutations among drug-experienced HIV patients, the genetic analysis of the…

This second HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) report provides an update on recent population levels of HIVDR covering the period 2014–2016. The report includes data from 16 nationally representative surveys from 14 countries estimating resistance in: adults initiating ART (PDR), children younger than…

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis are emerging worldwide. The Green Light Committee initiative supported programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in 90 countries. We used estimates from the Preserving Effective TB Treatment Study to predict…

Tuberculosis disproportionately affects hard-to-reach populations, such as homeless people, migrants, refugees, prisoners, or drug users. These people often face challenges in accessing quality health care. We did a systematic review of the qualitative literature to identify barriers and…

Although the number of deaths worldwide from tuberculosis—a disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis—fell by 22% between 2000 and 2015, it remains humanity’s biggest infectious killer and one of the top ten causes of all deaths. The 2016 WHO Global Tuberculosis Report estimated…

The Stop TB Partnership today launched its World TB Day website which has the full spectrum of downloadable communications materials. World TB Day is…

The World Health Organization was requested by Member States to develop a global priority pathogens list (global PPL) of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to help in prioritizing the research and development (R&D) of new and effective antibiotic treatments. To date, the selection of pathogens…

South Africa has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis in the world. In the past decade, the number of cases of XDR tuberculosis has increased by a factor of 10, to more than 1500 cases in 2012. Compounding the tuberculosis epidemic is the concurrent epidemic…

Globally 3.9% of new and 21% of re-treatment tuberculosis (TB) cases are multidrug-resistant or rifampicin-resistant (MDR/RR), which is often interpreted as evidence that drug resistance results mainly from poor treatment adherence. This study aims to assess the respective contributions of the…

According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug…

Background

HIV/AIDS is a serious threat to public health. The emergence of drug resistance mutations diminishes the effectiveness of drug therapy for HIV/AIDS. Developing a computational…

Approximately 85% of people switched to protease inhibitor-based second-line antiretroviral (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load with their new regimen, according to research in the online edition of Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Non-standard…

Given the magnitude and severity of the threat of antimicrobial resistance, it is a sign of progress that Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) are now developing national action plans in response to WHO’s Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. To accelerate these efforts…

Adequate management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), including multidrug- (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-)TB are within the priorities of the newly launched World Health Organization's End TB and Elimination Strategies. This manuscript aims to present the evidence on the MDR- /…

Tuberculosis is now the world's commonest cause of death from infectious disease. The ominous spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, and the scarce treatment options available, are priority global health issues. With a global estimate in 2014 of…

In a setback for a novel approach to curing HIV, researchers involved in a technique that uses enzymes to remove viral genes from the DNA of infected cells have found that HIV rapidly develops resistance to the guide molecules that target the correct part of the DNA sequence. The resistant…

A cross-sectional survey of viral load in patients attending the largest clinic providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Kenya has shown that after an average of nearly two years on first-line, tenofovir-based ART, 76% maintained a viral load under 40 copies/ml and 85% under 1000 copies/ml, the…

This report examines the central role that infection prevention, control, and surveillance  need to play in combatting the rise of drug-resistant infections. This is based on the recognition that fundamental improvements in these areas are the key to sustainable  gains in health outcomes,  and…

Promising new drugs and shorter regimens for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are beginning to emerge. Bharathi Ghanashyam reports ahead of World TB Day.

Background

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for controlling HIV-1 infection through wide-scale treatment as prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Potent tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing regimens are increasingly used to treat…

Unacceptable levels of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission are noted in high burden settings and a renewed focus on reducing person-to-person transmission in these communities is needed. We review recent developments in the understanding of airborne transmission. We outline…

Not one case of transmission of HIV that is resistant to any of the integrase inhibitor (INI) drugs has been seen in newly-diagnosed patients in a database of resistance tests in California, the ICAAC 2015 conference heard last month.

The reasons for this are unclear, given that integrase…