Resource Library

June 13, 2019

The Evidence for Contraceptive Options and HIV Outcomes (ECHO) Study is an open-label randomised clinical trial comparing three highly effective, reversible methods of contraception — a progestogen-only injectable called depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a levonorgestrel implant and the…

Despite public health interventions targeting sex workers in an attempt to increase condom use, HIV still remains a significant health issue for those involved in the sex industry in many countries. In this paper, we analyse data collected as part of an ethnographic study of sex work in Soweto,…

Though condom use is now higher than ever before, key gaps remain in countries and in certain populations, where use has stagnated or even decreased. To address these gaps, UNFPA in 2016 spearheaded the creation of the “20 by 20 Initiative,” a multisectoral effort to increase the number of…

Background
Understanding the absolute and relative risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) acquisition during pregnancy and the postpartum period can inform HIV prevention strategies for women.

Methods
We used a complementary log-…

In 2015, several condom manufacturers joined donor agencies to form a coalition whose main goal is to provide 20 billion condoms to low and middle-income countries by 2020. Between August and October 2017, AIDSFree conducted research on barriers that prevent condom manufacturers from entering…

Written in plain terms and organized for quick review, the popular Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers offers clinic-based health care professionals in low- and middle-income countries the latest guidance on providing contraceptive methods. Updated to include expanded…

Communities in South Africa’s informal settlements consist of ad-hoc and improvised housing whose residents seek opportunities for employment in the surrounding area. Since the settlements are unplanned, they are often underserved by municipal services, are under-represented politically, and…

Condoms have long been an important tool in preventing not only the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, but also preventing unwanted pregnancies. How can we expand these services and improve their usage? AIDSFree has pulled together over a dozen essential resources on…

Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new prevention approach for those most at risk of HIV infection. However, there are concerns that behavioural disinhibition, specifically reductions in condom use, might limit PrEP's protective effect. This study uses the case of female sex…

Background

In September, 2016, South Africa adopted a policy of providing antiretroviral treatment to everyone infected with HIV irrespective of their CD4 cell count. Studies of universal treatment and expanded…

Zambia experiences high unmet need for family planning and high rates of HIV, particularly among youth. While male condoms are widely available and 95% of adults have heard of them, self-reported use in the past 12 months is low among young adults (45%). This study describes factors associated…

The sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the Global strategy for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health 2016–20302 have placed renewed emphasis on understanding and addressing the sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents. Although they are the largest cohort of…

This study updated a previous systematic review and meta-analysis (1980–2010) on behavioral interventions promoting condom use among women living with HIV. The authors broadened the previous review, including newly published studies (2010–2014). They identified recent randomized controlled…

A programme of couples’ HIV testing and counselling in Zambia appears to result in durable reductions in sex without a condom in couples where one person has HIV and the other does not, according to an article published online ahead of print in Sexually Transmitted Infections.

Far…

Advances in biomedical technologies provide potential for adolescent HIV prevention and HIV-positive survival. The UNAIDS 90–90–90 treatment targets provide a new roadmap for ending the HIV epidemic, principally through antiretroviral treatment, HIV testing and viral suppression among people…

Living on Bussi Island, surrounded by Africa’s largest lake, it’s easy to feel isolated—especially if you’re a girl. Like most girls here, Dorothy married by 18, had a baby, dropped out of school, and had more babies. Within five years, she had five children. Dorothy delivered four of her babies…

Within the broadly generalized HIV epidemic in Swaziland, men who have sex with men (MSM) have specific HIV acquisition and transmission risks. In the current era of expanding antiretroviral therapy-based prevention and treatment approaches, condom use remains a core component of mitigating…

Condoms remain a key component of evidence-based, high-impact HIV prevention programs. To add to the limited evidence on condom counseling in the context of biomedical interventions, AIDSFree conducted a study that closely examined approaches for providing condom services, and the quality of…

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is present in the semen of a third of co-infected HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), investigators from the United States report in Open Forum Infectious Diseases. Levels of HCV in semen were plausibly high enough to transmit the infection. The authors…

Background

The intimate nature of sexuality makes it challenging to accurately measure sexual behaviour. To assess response reliability, we examined agreement between couples in heterosexual HIV sero-discordant partnership on…

Introduction:

Virtually no African country provides HIV prevention services in sex work settings with an adequate scale and intensity. Uncertainty remains about the optimal set of interventions and mode of delivery.

Methods:

We systematically…

Objective: To examine the practices of anal intercourse and dry sex within a cohort of female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya, focusing on the prevalence and perceived risk of the practices, demographic and behavioural correlates, and association with sexually transmitted infections (STI). 

Female sex workers (FSWs) bear a disproportionately large burden of HIV infection worldwide. Despite decades of research and programme activity, the epidemiology of HIV and the role that structural determinants have in mitigating or potentiating HIV epidemics and access to care for FSWs is…

Background: Since the 1990s, communication programs in South Africa have promoted HIV prevention, especially condom use. Although HIV prevalence stabilized after 2000, surveys have not clarified how prevention behavior contributed to that change. We present a secondary…

Prior research has established an association between sexual violence and HIV. Exposure to sexual violence during childhood can profoundly impact brain architecture and stress regulatory response. As a result, individuals who have experienced such trauma may engage in sexual risk-taking behavior…

Condoms are a critical component in a comprehensive and sustainable approach to the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and are effective for preventing unintended pregnancies. In 2013, an estimated 2.1 million people became newly infected with HIV and an estimated…

A study from Orange Farm near Johannesburg in South Africa, the area that hosted the first-ever randomised controlled trial of male circumcision for HIV prevention, which concluded in 2005, has found evidence that women who are partners of…