Resource Library

INTRODUCTION: Community ART Refill Groups (CARGs) are an antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery model where clients voluntarily form into groups, and a group member visits the clinic to collect ART for all group members. In late 2016, Zimbabwe began a nationwide…

Tenofovir is less toxic than other nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors used in antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may improve retention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients on ART. We assessed the impact of national guideline changes in South Africa (2010) and Zambia (…

Background: An estimated 7.9 million people were living with HIV in South Africa in 2017, with 63.3% of them remaining in antiretroviral therapy (ART) care and 62.9% accessing ART. Poor retention in care and suboptimal adherence to ART undermine the successful efforts of…

INTRODUCTION: Routinely monitoring the HIV viral load (VL) of people living with HIV (PLHIV) on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) facilitates intensive…

There is a need for a culturally adapted, evidence-based, psychotherapy treatment that is effective, acceptable, and feasible for integration into primary care in South Africa. This qualitative study used exit interviews to…

One-C is a community-based program that seeks to increase utilization of HIV services, improve linkages to services at the community level, and encourage the adoption of HIV risk reduction behaviors. Find out about the quantitative and qualitative results emerging from SOAR’s…

Increasing numbers of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy and transitioning onto second-line regimens. However, there is a dearth of research on their treatment experiences. We conducted in-…

Early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV provides an opportunity for early HIV detection and access to appropriate antiretroviral treatment (ART). Dried Blood Spot (DBS) samples are used for EID of exposed infants, born to HIV-positive mothers. However, DBS rejection rates in…

SOAR researchers assessed a community-based program that provided female sex workers with mobile or home-based ART services. The findings demonstrate that the community-based model can lead to higher ART initiation and retention rates, and better adherence compared to standard…

Background: The Eastern Cape province of South Africa has one of the highest burdens of HIV in the world. Emergency Departments (EDs) can serve as optimal clinical sites for the identification of new HIV infections and entry into care. We sought to determine the current burden…

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and post-partum adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa experience inferior outcomes along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) cascade compared to their adult counterparts. Yet, despite this…

BACKGROUND: Poor retention in the prevention of women in prevention of vertical transmission programs remains a formidable common setback in elimination of HIV/AIDS. It creates new problems such as poor health outcomes and increased incidence of vertical transmission of HIV.…

mothers2mothers (m2m) is an African NGO working towards the Global Goals of ensuring good health for all and ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030. The organization focuses on three core client groups—women, children, and adolescents—serving those living with HIV, and also those who are HIV-negative…

Background: Observational and laboratory studies suggest that some hormonal contraceptive methods, particularly intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM), might increase women's susceptibility to HIV acquisition. We aimed to compare DMPA-IM, a copper intrauterine…

More adolescents and young adults living with HIV are surviving into adulthood. As a result they must transition from pediatric health services to HIV self-management and adult care. This change is particularly important as many young people have poor adherence to treatment, leading to low rates…

BACKGROUND: Many adolescents living with HIV remain disconnected from care, especially in high-prevalence settings. Slow progressors-adolescents infected perinatally who survive without access to lifesaving treatment-remain unidentified and disconnected from heath systems,…

Background: The level of evidence for HIV transmission risk through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking virally suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited compared with the evidence available for transmission risk in…

PURPOSE: Data relating to the role that Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contributes towards seizures in HIV-infected children is limited. The management of seizures in this group is complex due to potential interactions between antiseizure medication and antiretroviral…

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral adherence is vital to the successful long-term rollout of the antiretroviral therapy program in South Africa. At present, there are no studies that look at the effects of disability on antiretroviral adherence.

METHODS: Drawing…

Young female sex-workers (FSW) aged 18-24 are at high risk of HIV due to high numbers of sexual partners, difficulty negotiating condom use, increased risk of gender-based violence, and limited access to services. Here we describe changes in sexual behaviours among young FSW across Zimbabwe…

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence; persistence and correlates of HPV infection and anogenital warts (AGW) among men living with HIV (MLHIV).

METHODS: Overall, 304 MLHIV >/=18 years were enrolled and attended follow-up visits at 6, 12 and 18 months…

Community-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) programs have become an important part of the healthcare system in South Africa and other low- and middle-income countries with a high HIV prevalence and strained primary healthcare system. Current HTC programs excel at identifying people living…

In sub-Saharan Africa, harmful alcohol use among male drinkers is high and has deleterious consequences on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV clinical outcomes, and couple relationship dynamics. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 25 Malawian couples on ART to…

INTRODUCTION: Zimbabwe has made substantial progress towards the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) targets of 90-90-90 by 2020, with 73% of people living with HIV diagnosed, 87% of those diagnosed on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 86% of those on ART virally…

Many countries, including South Africa, have implemented population-based household surveys to estimate HIV prevalence and the burden of HIV infection. Most household HIV surveys are designed to provide reliable estimates down to only the first subnational geopolitical level which, in South…

INTRODUCTION: Treat-all is being implemented in several African settings, in accordance with 2015 World Health Organisation guidelines. The factors known to undermine adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) may change in the context of Treat-all, where people living with HIV (…

BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 occurs in a minority of HIV-infected mother-infant pairs, even without any interventions. The mechanisms that protect the majority of HIV-exposed infants from infection are unclear. T regulatory cells (Treg) have important…

OBJECTIVES: Vaginal dysbiosis and STIs are important drivers of the HIV epidemic and reproductive complications. These conditions remain prevalent, partly because most cases are asymptomatic. We have shown that inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta and…