Resource Library

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a leading cause of death in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Mozambique. While diagnostic methods and…

Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest number of people living with HIV/AIDS, with Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda accounting for 48% of new infections. A systematic review of the HIV burden among women engaged in sex work (WESW) in 50 low- and middle-income…

There is evidence of increasing levels of pretreatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) in Southern Africa. We used data from two large population-based HIV surveillance studies to estimate prevalence of PDR in KwaZulu-Natal, the province with the highest HIV prevalence in South Africa. Sanger…

Despite public health interventions targeting sex workers in an attempt to increase condom use, HIV still remains a significant health issue for those involved in the sex industry in many countries. In this paper, we analyse data collected as part of an ethnographic study of sex work in Soweto,…

The emergence and expansion of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic is a threat to the global control of tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is the result of the selection of resistance-conferring mutations during inadequate antituberculosis treatment. However, HIV has a…

For people who may have been exposed to HIV, knowledge is critical to making informed decisions about their future. An HIV test is a serious event with potentially serious outcomes. But no matter the result, the test provides vital information. A negative result is an opportunity to take…

The Southern African HIV Clinicians Society’s biannual conference, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 24-27 October 2018, focused on clinical content for HIV and TB health care workers in the region and featured a wide range of topics…

Introduction

Globally, prosecutions for non‐disclosure, exposure or transmission of HIV frequently relate to sexual activity, biting, or spitting. This includes instances in which no harm was intended, HIV transmission did not occur, and HIV transmission was extremely…

In 2012, the Global Commission on HIV and the Law called on countries to outlaw discrimination, repeal punitive laws and enact protective laws to promote public health and human rights for effective HIV responses. Today, more than 89 countries have taken action to repeal or…

Female, male, and transgender sex workers continue to have disproportionately high burdens of HIV infection in low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries in 2018. 4 years since our Lancet Series on HIV and sex work, our updated analysis of the global HIV burden among female…

April 12, 2018

UNAIDS has just relaunched its Key Populations Atlas, an online tool that provides a range of information about members of key populations worldwide, including sex workers, gay men and other men who have sex with men,…

An essential first step in caring for HIV-infected children is accurate and early diagnosis of HIV, early HIV testing, prompt return of results, and rapid initiation of treatment. Survival of HIV‐infected infants depends on a robust early infant diagnosis (EID) system that allows for tracking of…

The International technical guidance on sexuality education (the Guidance) was developed to assist education, health and other relevant authorities in the development and implementation of school-based and out-of-school comprehensive sexuality education programmes and materials. It is…

HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a threat to future antiretroviral therapy success. Monitoring HIVDR patterns is of particular importance in populations such as sex workers (SWs), where documented HIV prevalence is between 34-89%, and in countries with limited therapeutic options. Currently in…

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) that enables suppression of HIV replication has been successfully rolled out at large scale to HIV-positive patients in low-income and middle-income countries. WHO guidelines for these regions define failure of ART with a lenient threshold of viraemia (HIV RNA viral…

In all countries where there is an HIV epidemic, certain subgroups of the population are at greater risk of HIV than others. These “key” populations include female sex workers (FSWs), men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people, and people who inject drugs.

While biological and…

Fungi are major contributors to the opportunistic infections that affect patients with HIV/AIDS. Systemic infections are mainly with Pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumocystosis), Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis), Histoplasma capsulatum (histoplasmosis), and 

Providing HIV testing at health facilities remains the most common approach to ensuring access to HIV treatment and prevention services for the millions of undiagnosed HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to explore the costs of providing these services across three southern…

The AIDSFree HIV Testing Services (HTS) Guidance Database has been updated with new guidelines from many PEPFAR priority countries. The database features HTS guidelines & policies on consent and confidentiality, testing algorithms & strategies, use of mandatory testing, quality assurance…

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)–HIV coinfections are becoming common with information on HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance still remaining elusive. To evaluate the HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance-associated mutations among drug-experienced HIV patients, the genetic analysis of the…

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for HIV infection have high sensitivity and specificity, but in the setting of longstanding antiretroviral therapy (ART), can give false results that can lead to misinterpretation, confusion and inadequate management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the…

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the primary diagnostic tools for HIV used in resource-constrained settings. Without a proper confirmation algorithm, there is concern that false-positive (FP) RDTs could result in misdiagnosis of HIV infection and inappropriate antiretroviral treatment (ART)…

This study describes the overall accuracy and performance of a serial rapid HIV testing algorithm used in community-based HIV testing in the context of a population-based household survey conducted in two sub-districts of uMgungundlovu district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, against reference…

HIV-related stigma and discrimination in health care settings are known to negatively affect the HIV response. Experiences of HIV-related stigma and discrimination have been widely reported in health care settings around the world and have constituted a deterrent to accessing HIV-related and…

To mark the 9th IAS Conference on HIV Science, the Lancet journals have made a selection of content free that reflects some of the breadth and diversity of clinical, epidemiological, and operational HIV research produced by the tireless global HIV community. The content includes…

This second HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) report provides an update on recent population levels of HIVDR covering the period 2014–2016. The report includes data from 16 nationally representative surveys from 14 countries estimating resistance in: adults initiating ART (PDR), children younger than…

Mounting evidence suggests that laws and policies prohibiting illegal drug use could have a central role in shaping health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). To date, no systematic review has characterised the influence of laws and legal frameworks prohibiting drug use on HIV…

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis are emerging worldwide. The Green Light Committee initiative supported programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in 90 countries. We used estimates from the Preserving Effective TB Treatment Study to predict…