Resource Library

Objectives: Widespread access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has substantially increased life expectancy in sub‐Saharan African countries. As a result, the rates of comorbidities and use of co‐medications among people living with HIV are increasing, necessitating a sound…

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and post-partum adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa experience inferior outcomes along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) cascade compared to their adult counterparts. Yet, despite this…

BACKGROUND: Poor retention in the prevention of women in prevention of vertical transmission programs remains a formidable common setback in elimination of HIV/AIDS. It creates new problems such as poor health outcomes and increased incidence of vertical transmission of HIV.…

In 2017, tuberculosis caused an estimated 1·6 million deaths, including 300 000 deaths among people with HIV, and surpassed HIV/AIDS to become the leading infectious cause of mortality worldwide. Approximately 36% of tuberculosis cases each year (around 3·5 million cases) are not diagnosed or…

BACKGROUND: The Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programme in Zimbabwe has had remarkable success despite the country's economic challenges. The aim of this study was to explore the challenges faced by breastfeeding mothers on the PMTCT programme.

June 13, 2019

The Evidence for Contraceptive Options and HIV Outcomes (ECHO) Study is an open-label randomised clinical trial comparing three highly effective, reversible methods of contraception — a progestogen-only injectable called depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a levonorgestrel implant and the…

With only a year until 2020 – and the deadline to reach the 90-90-90 targets – South Africa is dangerously off track. Currently 7.1 million people are living with HIV in the country. New HIV infections remain high, according to the Thembisa model1 at 275 000 in 2017, higher than the 231 000…

Contraceptive adherence during acute and recent HIV-1 infection is important to maternal and child health given the elevated risk of vertical HIV-1 transmission and additional complications of pregnancy. Injectable contraception (IC) is the most common non-barrier modern contraception method…

BACKGROUND: Linear growth retardation is the most dominant nutritional problem globally. We aimed to describe linear growth trajectory among infants under 2 years of age using the WHO growth velocity standards.

METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study…

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and magnitude of chronic lung disease (CLD) and its association with empiric anti-tuberculosis treatment (due to lack of bacteriologic confirmation) among recurrent tuberculosis (TB) survivors in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalent…

Antimicrobial drug resistance is a serious health hazard driven by overuse. Administration of antimicrobial drugs to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants, a population that is growing and at high risk for infection, is poorly studied. We therefore analyzed factors associated with antibacterial drug…

Despite public health interventions targeting sex workers in an attempt to increase condom use, HIV still remains a significant health issue for those involved in the sex industry in many countries. In this paper, we analyse data collected as part of an ethnographic study of sex work in Soweto,…

BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 occurs in a minority of HIV-infected mother-infant pairs, even without any interventions. The mechanisms that protect the majority of HIV-exposed infants from infection are unclear. T regulatory cells (Treg) have important…

BACKGROUND: WHO recommends that HIV infected women receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) minimally during pregnancy and breastfeeding ("Option B"), or ideally throughout their lives regardless of clinical stage ("Option B+") (Coovadia et al., Lancet 379:221-228, 2012). Although…

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data describing autoimmune skin diseases in sub-Saharan Africa and in HIV positive cohorts. We describe the incidence of autoimmune skin diseases in public dermatology clinics in Botswana.

METHODS: New patient records…

BACKGROUND: This observational study describes implementation of HIV retesting of HIV-negative women in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services in Zambia.

METHODS: Uptake of retesting and PMTCT services were compared across age,…

OBJECTIVES: Vaginal dysbiosis and STIs are important drivers of the HIV epidemic and reproductive complications. These conditions remain prevalent, partly because most cases are asymptomatic. We have shown that inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta and…

This study investigated perinatal depressive symptoms among HIV-infected women enrolled in a cluster-randomized, controlled trial in South Africa. Women (n = 1370) attending 12 community health centers were consecutively enrolled in a two-phase (phase 1 = without a male partner, phase 2 = with a…

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the causes and covariates of late antenatal care access in South Africa.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, interviewing 221 women at four public-sector labour wards in Cape Town,…

OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) patients who accessed second-line drug susceptibility testing (SL-DST) results following introduction of the Hain technology in southern provinces, Zimbabwe.

DESIGN:

OBJECTIVES: HIV infection has been associated with an impaired lung function in high-income countries, but the association between HIV infection and pulmonary function in Sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the relation between HIV infection and…

In East and Southern Africa, where 5% to 10% have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains unacceptably high. This introduces challenges and opportunities for implementation of HBV care and treatment. We now describe new HIV…

BACKGROUND: The GeneXpert MTB/RIF Assay (Xpert(R)) is known to be a feasible, effective and a hopeful tool for rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment. However, little is known about the time delay caused by initial negative sputum smear microscopy (NSSM), but…

BACKGROUND: Subclinical tuberculosis is an asymptomatic disease phase with important relevance to persons living with HIV. We describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and risk of mortality for HIV-infected adults with subclinical tuberculosis.

METHODS…

BACKGROUND: Xpert MTB/RIF, the most widely used automated nucleic acid amplification test for tuberculosis, is available in more than 130 countries. Although diagnostic accuracy is well documented, anticipated improvements in patient outcomes have not been clearly identified. We…

Background: Since 2010, the World Health Organization recommends lifelong antiretroviral treatment for all women living with HIV, and exclusive breastfeeding for six-months followed by breastfeeding until 24-months for all HIV positive mothers. Nevertheless, many mothers living…

BACKGROUND:

People living with HIV (PLHIV) are at increased risk of tuberculosis (TB). TB is also the leading opportunistic infection contributing to about one-third of deaths in this population. The World Health Organization recommends regular screening for TB in PLHIV. Those…

Background: Drug resistance is a challenge for the global control of tuberculosis. We examined mortality in patients with tuberculosis from high-burden countries, according to concordance or discordance of results from drug susceptibility testing done locally and in a reference…