Resource Library

Background
There has been a heightened emphasis on prioritizing data to inform evidence-based HIV responses, including data focused on both defining the content and scale of HIV programs in response to evidence-based need. Consequently, population size estimation (PSE)…

This qualitative research study explored the role of masculinity in men’s engagement in the HIV care continuum in Côte d’Ivoire. The researchers conducted 73 in-depth interviews and 28 focus group discussions with 227 Ivoirian men between November and December 2016 across three urban sites.…

When healthcare providers are properly trained to address violence against women, they can make a significant difference in addressing not only the physical injuries caused by violence, but also the mental, sexual and emotional hurt. In recognition of this, WHO has published a training…

INTRODUCTION: Adolescent girls and young women aged 15 to 24 years have some of the highest HIV incidence rates globally, with girls two to four times more likely to be living with HIV than their male peers. High levels of intimate partner…

This article presents findings from implementation and scale-up of HIV self-testing program for female sex workers in Malawi and Zimbabwe from 2013-2018. It concludes that involving female sex workers in planning and ongoing implementation of HIV self-testing is essential, along with strategies…

INTRODUCTION: HIV testing male partners of pregnant and postpartum women can lead to improved health outcomes for women, partners and infants.…

BACKGROUND: Heterosexual men in South Africa are a large key population to exposure to HIV, yet preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)…

SOAR researchers assessed a community-based program that provided female sex workers with mobile or home-based ART services. The findings demonstrate that the community-based model can lead to higher ART initiation and retention rates, and better adherence compared to standard…

Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest number of people living with HIV/AIDS, with Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda accounting for 48% of new infections. A systematic review of the HIV burden among women engaged in sex work (WESW) in 50 low- and middle-income…

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and post-partum adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa experience inferior outcomes along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) cascade compared to their adult counterparts. Yet, despite this…

BACKGROUND: Poor retention in the prevention of women in prevention of vertical transmission programs remains a formidable common setback in elimination of HIV/AIDS. It creates new problems such as poor health outcomes and increased incidence of vertical transmission of HIV.…

BACKGROUND: The Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programme in Zimbabwe has had remarkable success despite the country's economic challenges. The aim of this study was to explore the challenges faced by breastfeeding mothers on the PMTCT programme.

BACKGROUND: The Sub-Saharan Africa region still remains the epicentre of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. With regards to new paediatric HIV infections, almost 90% of new HIV infections are among children (aged 0-14 years), largely through mother to child transmission. Male Partner…

BACKGROUND: Expanded HIV prevention options are needed to increase uptake of HIV prevention among women, especially in generalized epidemics. As the dapivirine vaginal ring moves forward through regulatory review and open-label extension studies, the potential public health…

As South Africa seeks to implement national policies on school-based health education and services it is important that the evidence and experiences of existing school health programs be accessible to service providers and role-players. It is for this reason that Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors…

Background: The level of evidence for HIV transmission risk through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking virally suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited compared with the evidence available for transmission risk in…

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among people living with HIV is elevated due to persistent inflammation, hypertension and diabetes comorbidity, lifestyle factors and exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Data from Africa on how CVD risk affects morbidity and…

Young female sex-workers (FSW) aged 18-24 are at high risk of HIV due to high numbers of sexual partners, difficulty negotiating condom use, increased risk of gender-based violence, and limited access to services. Here we describe changes in sexual behaviours among young FSW across Zimbabwe…

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence; persistence and correlates of HPV infection and anogenital warts (AGW) among men living with HIV (MLHIV).

METHODS: Overall, 304 MLHIV >/=18 years were enrolled and attended follow-up visits at 6, 12 and 18 months…

BACKGROUND: Conventional HIV testing services have been less comprehensive in reaching men than in reaching women globally, but HIV self-testing (HIVST) appears to be an acceptable alternative. Measurement of linkage to post-test services following HIVST remains the biggest…

In sub-Saharan Africa, harmful alcohol use among male drinkers is high and has deleterious consequences on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV clinical outcomes, and couple relationship dynamics. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 25 Malawian couples on ART to…

Several tools have been developed to collect information on health facility preparedness to provide sexual violence response services; however, little guidance exists on how this information can be used to better understand which functions a facility can perform. Our study therefore aims to…

BACKGROUND: The voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program in Mozambique aimed to increase male circumcision (MC) coverage to 80 percent among males ages 10 to 49 by 2018. Given the difficulty in attracting adult men over age 20 for circumcision, Mozambique became…

BACKGROUND: 'HIV prevention cascades' have been proposed to support programmes by identifying gaps in demand for, access to and capability to adhere to HIV prevention tools, but there are few empirical examples to guide development. We apply a prevention cascade framework to…

Men's relatively low rates of HIV testing has been termed the 'HIV blind spot' and recently declared by UNAIDS as a top priority. This study uses data from five nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe to explore factors…

Increased coverage of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is needed in countries with high HIV prevalence. We applied an HIV-prevention cascade to identify gaps in male circumcision coverage in Zambia. We used survey data collected in 2013 and 2014/15 to describe circumcision coverage at…

Despite public health interventions targeting sex workers in an attempt to increase condom use, HIV still remains a significant health issue for those involved in the sex industry in many countries. In this paper, we analyse data collected as part of an ethnographic study of sex work in Soweto,…

BACKGROUND: WHO recommends that HIV infected women receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) minimally during pregnancy and breastfeeding ("Option B"), or ideally throughout their lives regardless of clinical stage ("Option B+") (Coovadia et al., Lancet 379:221-228, 2012). Although…