Resource Library

Background

Approximately 14% of Africans infected with HIV are over the age of 50, yet few intervention studies focus on improving access to care, retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population. A review of the published literature…

It was estimated that 1.2 million people live with HIV/AIDS in Zambia by 2015. Zambia has developed and implemented diverse programs to reduce the prevalence in the country. HIV-testing is a critical step in HIV treatment and prevention, especially among all the key populations. However, there…

Despite sub-Saharan Africa [SSA] constituting just 12% of the world’s population, the region has the highest burden of HIV with 70% of HIV infection in general and 80% of new infections among young people occuring in the region. Diverse intervention programmes have been implemented among young…

HIV infection continues to pose a critical risk to health in many countries. UNAIDS estimates that as of 2016 the total HIV-infected population was 36.7 million, including 1.8 million people newly infected that year. Although some 19.5 million people are receiving antiretroviral treatment, a…

Digital innovations with internet/mobile phones offer a potential cost-saving solution for overburdened health systems with high service delivery costs to improve efficiency of HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infections) control initiatives. However, their overall evidence has not yet been…

Observational studies have shown considerable attrition among adolescents living with HIV across the "cascade" of HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa, leading to higher mortality rates compared to HIV-infected adults or children. We synthesized evidence from qualitative studies on factors that…

In accordance with global testing and treatment targets, many countries are seeking ways to reach the “90-90-90” goals, starting with diagnosing 90% of all people with HIV. Quality HIV testing services are needed to enable people with HIV to be diagnosed and linked to treatment as early as…

This review describes the evidence for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily combined tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine for adolescents and young adults. Current recommendations are described, as are the unique medical, socioeconomic, and legal considerations regarding the…

Evidence on sexual risk-taking among HIV-positive adolescents and youth in sub-Saharan Africa is urgently needed. This systematic review synthesizes the extant research on prevalence, factors associated with, and interventions to reduce sexual risk-taking among HIV-positive adolescents and youth…

HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a discreet and convenient way to reach people with HIV who do not know their status, including many who may not otherwise test. To inform World Health Organization (WHO) guidance, we assessed the effect of HIVST on uptake and frequency of testing, as well as…

Mounting evidence suggests that laws and policies prohibiting illegal drug use could have a central role in shaping health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). To date, no systematic review has characterised the influence of laws and legal frameworks prohibiting drug use on HIV…

Tuberculosis disproportionately affects hard-to-reach populations, such as homeless people, migrants, refugees, prisoners, or drug users. These people often face challenges in accessing quality health care. We did a systematic review of the qualitative literature to identify barriers and…

The heightened risk of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) has been clearly established across settings. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), FSWs have an estimated HIV prevalence of 36.9% as compared to 7.4% in the general adult female population. In the Iringa region of Tanzania, a…

This supplement of JAIDS provides a compilation of health promoters and their professional allies' experiences in the field of HIV care and prevention. It is an extension and follow-up to the 2014 JAIDS Supplement entitled “Health Communication Strategies in Combination HIV…

Mobile health (mHealth) is often reputed to be cost-effective or cost-saving. Despite optimism, the strength of the evidence supporting this assertion has been limited. In this systematic review the body of evidence related to economic evaluations of mHealth interventions is assessed and…

Only an estimated 54% of people living with HIV are aware of their status. Despite progress scaling up HIV testing services (HTS), a testing gap remains. Delivery of HTS by lay providers may help close this testing gap, while also increasing uptake and acceptability of HIV testing among key…

Despite more than two decades of research on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and more than 17 million HIV-positive individuals on treatment, adherence to ART remains a major challenge. This review aimed to assess the most frequently reported barriers to adherence by patients…

High adherence to antiretroviral therapy is crucial to the success of HIV treatment. We evaluated comparative effectiveness of adherence interventions with the aim of informing the WHO's global guidance on interventions to increase adherence.

Young people 15–24 years old represent 39% of new HIV infections globally. However, they are the least likely age demographic to seek HIV testing and the most likely to be unaware of their HIV status. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to identify interventions that increase…

Cochrane researchers conducted a review of the effects of school-based…

Aim: To establish an overview of school-based interventions carried out to support the health and well-being of vulnerable children in Zimbabwe and similar socio-economic contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: A literature search was carried out in Web of Knowledge using combinations of the…

The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis are higher in prisons than in the general population in most countries worldwide. Prisons have emerged as a risk environment for these infections to be further concentrated, amplified, and then transmitted to the…

The burden of HIV/AIDS and other transmissible diseases is higher in prison and jail settings than in the non-incarcerated communities that surround them. In this comprehensive review, we discuss available literature on the topic of clinical management of people infected with HIV, hepatitis B…

The prison setting presents not only challenges, but also opportunities, for the prevention and treatment of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis. We did a comprehensive literature search of data published between 2005 and 2015 to understand the global epidemiology of HIV, hepatitis C virus (…

Timely access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is vital to ensuring safe motherhood and reducing vertical transmission. Treatment guidance and programming has changed dramatically in recent years. While progress has been made in improving maternal health, more is needed, including efforts to…

Although HIV/AIDS constitute a significant health burden among children in South Africa, testing and counselling of exposed children are inadequate. It is therefore imperative that factors relating to paediatric HCT services offered by health workers are examined. This study was conducted to…

Deciding to test for HIV is necessary for receiving HIV treatment and care among those who are HIV-positive. This article presents a systematic review of quantitative studies on relationships between psychological (cognitive and affective) variables and HIV testing. Sixty two studies were…

Prisoners and detainees worldwide have higher burdens of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis than the communities from which they come. This disease burden among prisoners has been recognised since the early years of these inter-related pandemics. Yet the health needs of prisoners receive…