Resource Library

Introduction: Many studies have shown that key populations, including men who have sex with men, female sex workers, persons who inject drugs and transgender men and women face stigma, violence and discrimination as well as suffer from high rates of mental health/psychosocial…

Background

Approximately 14% of Africans infected with HIV are over the age of 50, yet few intervention studies focus on improving access to care, retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population. A review of the published literature…

It was estimated that 1.2 million people live with HIV/AIDS in Zambia by 2015. Zambia has developed and implemented diverse programs to reduce the prevalence in the country. HIV-testing is a critical step in HIV treatment and prevention, especially among all the key populations. However, there…

HIV infection continues to pose a critical risk to health in many countries. UNAIDS estimates that as of 2016 the total HIV-infected population was 36.7 million, including 1.8 million people newly infected that year. Although some 19.5 million people are receiving antiretroviral treatment, a…

Digital innovations with internet/mobile phones offer a potential cost-saving solution for overburdened health systems with high service delivery costs to improve efficiency of HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infections) control initiatives. However, their overall evidence has not yet been…

Observational studies have shown considerable attrition among adolescents living with HIV across the "cascade" of HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa, leading to higher mortality rates compared to HIV-infected adults or children. We synthesized evidence from qualitative studies on factors that…

Evidence on sexual risk-taking among HIV-positive adolescents and youth in sub-Saharan Africa is urgently needed. This systematic review synthesizes the extant research on prevalence, factors associated with, and interventions to reduce sexual risk-taking among HIV-positive adolescents and youth…

HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a discreet and convenient way to reach people with HIV who do not know their status, including many who may not otherwise test. To inform World Health Organization (WHO) guidance, we assessed the effect of HIVST on uptake and frequency of testing, as well as…

Mounting evidence suggests that laws and policies prohibiting illegal drug use could have a central role in shaping health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). To date, no systematic review has characterised the influence of laws and legal frameworks prohibiting drug use on HIV…

Tuberculosis disproportionately affects hard-to-reach populations, such as homeless people, migrants, refugees, prisoners, or drug users. These people often face challenges in accessing quality health care. We did a systematic review of the qualitative literature to identify barriers and…

Worldwide, 30% of the world's population have antibodies to the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and about 36·7 million people are infected with HIV, but little is known about the prevalence of co-infection with T gondii and HIV. We aimed to characterise the…

The heightened risk of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) has been clearly established across settings. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), FSWs have an estimated HIV prevalence of 36.9% as compared to 7.4% in the general adult female population. In the Iringa region of Tanzania, a…

This supplement of JAIDS provides a compilation of health promoters and their professional allies' experiences in the field of HIV care and prevention. It is an extension and follow-up to the 2014 JAIDS Supplement entitled “Health Communication Strategies in Combination HIV…

Although lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all individuals with HIV, few data exist for pregnancy outcomes associated with ART initiation before conception. We assessed adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with ART initiated before conception compared with…

Mobile health (mHealth) is often reputed to be cost-effective or cost-saving. Despite optimism, the strength of the evidence supporting this assertion has been limited. In this systematic review the body of evidence related to economic evaluations of mHealth interventions is assessed and…

As children living with HIV (CLHIV) grow into adolescence and adulthood, caregivers and healthcare providers are faced with the sensitive challenge of when to disclose to a CLHIV his or her HIV status. Despite WHO recommendations for CLHIV to know their status, in countries most affected by HIV…

Only an estimated 54% of people living with HIV are aware of their status. Despite progress scaling up HIV testing services (HTS), a testing gap remains. Delivery of HTS by lay providers may help close this testing gap, while also increasing uptake and acceptability of HIV testing among key…

Despite more than two decades of research on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and more than 17 million HIV-positive individuals on treatment, adherence to ART remains a major challenge. This review aimed to assess the most frequently reported barriers to adherence by patients…

High adherence to antiretroviral therapy is crucial to the success of HIV treatment. We evaluated comparative effectiveness of adherence interventions with the aim of informing the WHO's global guidance on interventions to increase adherence.

Young people 15–24 years old represent 39% of new HIV infections globally. However, they are the least likely age demographic to seek HIV testing and the most likely to be unaware of their HIV status. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to identify interventions that increase…

Tuberculosis (TB) case notification rates are usually higher in men than in women, but notification data are insufficient to measure sex differences in disease burden. This review set out to systematically investigate whether sex ratios in case notifications reflect differences in disease…

The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis are higher in prisons than in the general population in most countries worldwide. Prisons have emerged as a risk environment for these infections to be further concentrated, amplified, and then transmitted to the…

The burden of HIV/AIDS and other transmissible diseases is higher in prison and jail settings than in the non-incarcerated communities that surround them. In this comprehensive review, we discuss available literature on the topic of clinical management of people infected with HIV, hepatitis B…

The prison setting presents not only challenges, but also opportunities, for the prevention and treatment of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis. We did a comprehensive literature search of data published between 2005 and 2015 to understand the global epidemiology of HIV, hepatitis C virus (…

Timely access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is vital to ensuring safe motherhood and reducing vertical transmission. Treatment guidance and programming has changed dramatically in recent years. While progress has been made in improving maternal health, more is needed, including efforts to…

Deciding to test for HIV is necessary for receiving HIV treatment and care among those who are HIV-positive. This article presents a systematic review of quantitative studies on relationships between psychological (cognitive and affective) variables and HIV testing. Sixty two studies were…

Prisoners and detainees worldwide have higher burdens of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis than the communities from which they come. This disease burden among prisoners has been recognised since the early years of these inter-related pandemics. Yet the health needs of prisoners receive…

The Cochrane Library (ISSN 1465-1858) is a collection of six databases that contain different types of high-quality, independent evidence to inform healthcare decision-making, and a seventh database that provides information about Cochrane groups.

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