Resource Library

Background: Efficient and scalable models for HIV treatment are needed to maximize health outcomes with available resources. By adapting services to client needs, differentiated antiretroviral therapy (DART) has the potential to use resources more efficiently. We conducted a…

Background: Stakeholders question whether implementation science (IS) is successful in conducting rigorous science that expedites the inclusion of health innovations into policies and accelerates the pace and scale of health service delivery into clinical and public health…

BACKGROUND: Most countries have formally adopted the World Health Organization's 2015 recommendation of universal HIV treatment ("treat all"). However, there are few rigorous assessments of the real-world impact of treat all policies on antiretroviral treatment (ART…

BACKGROUND: The NEVEREST-3 (South Africa) and MONOD-ANRS-12206 (Cote d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso) randomized trials found that switching to efavirenz (…

Increasing numbers of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy and transitioning onto second-line regimens. However, there is a dearth of research on their treatment experiences. We conducted in-…

Botswana has among the highest level of HIV viral suppression globally, yet HIV incidence remains > 1% per year in adults aged 15 to 49. Although causes of this continued elevated incidence have been postulated, a firm understanding remains elusive, especially in the presence of a highly…

BACKGROUND: Expanded HIV prevention options are needed to increase uptake of HIV prevention among women, especially in generalized epidemics. As the dapivirine vaginal ring moves forward through regulatory review and open-label extension studies, the potential public health…

INTRODUCTION: Since June 2016, the national HIV programme in Malawi has adopted Universal Test and Treat (UTT) guidelines requiring that all persons who test HIV positive will be referred to start antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although there is strong evidence from clinical…

Increasing numbers of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy and transitioning onto second-line regimens. However, there is a dearth of research on their treatment experiences. We conducted in-depth interviews with 43…

BACKGROUND: Conventional HIV testing services have been less comprehensive in reaching men than in reaching women globally, but HIV self-testing (HIVST) appears to be an acceptable alternative. Measurement of linkage to post-test services following HIVST remains the biggest…

INTRODUCTION: Zimbabwe has made substantial progress towards the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) targets of 90-90-90 by 2020, with 73% of people living with HIV diagnosed, 87% of those diagnosed on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 86% of those on ART virally…

Despite public health interventions targeting sex workers in an attempt to increase condom use, HIV still remains a significant health issue for those involved in the sex industry in many countries. In this paper, we analyse data collected as part of an ethnographic study of sex work in Soweto,…

There has been a proliferation of organizations in Zambia touting the mobilization of traditional games as a tool to prevent HIV. However, there is a dearth of evidence on how culturally important activities like traditional games are being incorporated into programing. The purpose of this study…

BACKGROUND: Current policy in South Africa requires measurement of blood pressure at every visit in primary care. The number of patients regularly visiting primary care clinics for routine care is increasing rapidly, causing long queues, and unmanageable workloads.

In East and Southern Africa, where 5% to 10% have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains unacceptably high. This introduces challenges and opportunities for implementation of HBV care and treatment. We now describe new HIV…

BACKGROUND: Shortage of health workforce in most African countries is a major impediment to achieving health and development goals. Countries are encouraged to develop evidence-based strategies to scale up their health workforce in order to bridge the gap. South-South…

Background: Little up-to-date information is available about the costs of providing drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB) treatment to paediatric patients in South Africa (SA), nor have actual costs incurred at clinics been compared with costs expected from guidelines.

BACKGROUND: South Africa's prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)…

BACKGROUND: In Malawi's PMTCT Option B+ program, HIV-infected pregnant women who are already receiving ART are continued on…

Background: There has been a notable expansion in routine health care in sub-Saharan Africa. While heath care is nominally free in many contexts, the time required to access services reflects an opportunity cost that may be substantial and highly gendered, reflecting the…

Age-of-consent laws can be a barrier to adolescents accessing relevant HIV/AIDS services. This study provides new evidence that a lower legal age of consent could address this barrier, especially in countries with more restrictive legislation, and increase HIV testing and counselling uptake. HIV…

In the past few years, UNAIDS, the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (The Global Fund) have promoted a goal of HIV epidemic transition and an “end of AIDS.” The belief in this goal stems from the…

Since the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978, community health volunteers (CHVs) have been at the forefront, providing health services, especially to underserved communities, in low-income countries. However, consolidation of CHVs position within formal health systems has proved to be complex and…

It is an internationally accepted principle that ethics norms should be applied and enforced in research with humans through ethics review by research ethics committees (RECs). This places RECs at the very heart of the system for protecting participants and enforcing their rights. In the South…

South Africa has implemented a community-based HIV programme (CBHP) in its primary healthcare (PHC) re-engineering strategy that aims to improve public healthcare delivery. This CBHP is delivered by ward-based outreach teams (WBOTs); provision of community HIV services comprises an important…

Objective: This article provides an overview and interpretation of the performance of the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief’s (PEPFAR’s) male circumcision programme which has supported the majority of voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMCs) performed for HIV…

BACKGROUND: In order to clarify priorities and stimulate research in adolescent health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted two priority-setting exercises based on the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI)…

INTRODUCTION: The Global Fund and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) are major donors to HIV services with key populations (KPs) to achieve the UNAIDS 95-95-95 epidemic control goals. The programmes they fund are not always well aligned or coordinated,…