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INTRODUCTION: Adolescent girls and young women aged 15 to 24 years have some of the highest HIV incidence rates globally, with girls two to four times more likely to be living with HIV than their male peers. High levels of intimate partner…

Men's relatively low rates of HIV testing has been termed the 'HIV blind spot' and recently declared by UNAIDS as a top priority. This study uses data from five nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe to explore factors…

BACKGROUND: Sexual and physical abuse in childhood creates a great health burden including on mental and reproductive health. A possible link between child abuse and HIV infection has increasingly attracted attention. This paper investigated whether a history of child physical…

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Men’s gender role conflict and stress (GRC/S), the psychological strain they experience around fulfilling expectations of themselves as men, has been largely unexplored in HIV prevention research. We examined associations between both men’s gender norms and GRC/S and three HIV risk behaviors…

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is recognised as an important public health and social problem, with far reaching consequences for women’s physical and emotional health and social well-being. Furthermore, controlling behaviour by a partner has a similar impact on women’s well-being, yet little…

There is now a growing body of research indicating that prevention interventions can reduce intimate partner violence (IPV); much less is known, however, about how couples exposed to these interventions experience the change process, particularly in low-income countries. Understanding the…

We aimed to describe and compare gender norms among 10- to 14-year-olds versus 15- to 24-year-olds and to conduct a rigorous evaluation of the GEM Scale's performance among these two age groups.

We conducted a two-stage cluster-sampled survey among 387 females and 583 males, aged 10–24…

Introduction: Women living with HIV are vulnerable to gender-based violence (GBV) before and after diagnosis, in multiple settings. This study’s aim was to explore how GBV is experienced by women living with HIV, how this affects women’s sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and…

Intimate partner violence (IPV) during or before pregnancy is associated with many adverse health outcomes. Pregnancy-related complications or poor infant health outcomes can arise from direct trauma as well as physiological effects of stress, both of which impact maternal health and fetal…

This study prospectively examined whether HIV leads to elevated risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) for women and how this risk varies depending on HIV status disclosure to a partner.

Although we established that HIV does not increase incidence of IPV for all HIV-positive women, we…

A new study of the impact of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations suggests that holes in the host immune repertoire contribute to poor disease outcomes, owing to a gradual deterioration of the host anti-HIV-1 immune response. This should be accounted for in HIV-1 vaccine development…

Gender-based power imbalances place women at significant risk for sexual violence, however, little research has examined this association among women living with HIV/AIDS. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of relationship power and sexual violence among HIV-positive women on anti-…

The Uganda-based NGO Raising Voices has been exploring and experimenting with community-based primary prevention methodologies that seek to shift attitudes and behaviours that perpetuate violence against women. This article shares some of the lessons learned from this process in East Africa over…

Background: Inequitable gender-based power in relationships and intimate partner violence contribute to persistently high rates of HIV infection among South African women. We examined the effects of two group-based HIV prevention interventions that engaged men and their female…