Resource Library

In 2016, the United Nations General Assembly’s Political Declaration on Ending AIDS committed countries to the 90–90–90 targets, which aim to bring HIV testing and treatment to the vast majority of people living with HIV by the end of 2020 and to reduce the amount of HIV in their bodies to…

Background: 

Undetermined attrition prohibits full understanding of the coverage and effectiveness of HIV programs. Outcomes following loss to follow-up (LTFU) among antiretroviral therapy (ART) patients may differ according to their reasons for ART initiation.

Background

HIV-1 risk scoring tools could help target provision of prevention modalities such as pre-exposure prophylaxis. Recent research suggests that risk scores for women aged 18–45 may not predict risk well among young women aged 18–24. We evaluated the predictive…

Introduction

There is a growing interest in adolescent motherhood and HIV among policymakers and programme implementers. To better shape services and health outcomes, we need evidence on reproductive aspirations and contraception use in this high‐risk…

Introduction

HIV continues to devastate the adolescent population in sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA). The complex array of interpersonal, social, structural and system‐level obstacles specific to adolescents have slowed progress in prevention and treatment of HIV in this…

Introduction

The “DREAMS Partnership” promotes a multi‐sectoral approach to reduce adolescent girls and young women's (AGYW) vulnerability to HIV in sub‐Saharan Africa. Despite widespread calls to combine structural, behavioural and biomedical HIV prevention…

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of death among people living with HIV, causing one third of AIDS-related deaths globally. The concerning number of missing TB cases, ongoing high TB mortality, slow reduction in TB incidence, and limited uptake of TB preventive treatment among…

Introduction

Despite existing health strategies and guidelines developed to counteract the problem of mother-to-child HIV transmission, it seems that only a certain number of HIV-exposed children aged under five years are managed properly. Poor implementation of…

Background

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the disease it causes, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread rapidly across the globe resulting in more than 7,000,000 cases and 400,000 deaths worldwide, of which 52,991 cases and 1162…

Introduction: 

In South Africa, evidence shows high HIV prevalence in older populations, with sexual behavior consistent with high HIV acquisition and transmission risk. However, there is a dearth of evidence on older people's HIV incidence.

Methods: …

Background: Experiences from infectious outbreaks globally, such as Ebola and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), highlight the challenges of government to maintain essential healthcare services, guarantee healthcare access and at the same time shift resources to contain…

Background

The healthcare workforce in high tuberculosis burden countries such as South Africa is at elevated risk of tuberculosis infection and disease with adverse consequences for their well-being and productivity. Despite the availability of international guidelines…

Despite the body of evidence on heterosexual men’s inequitable access to HIV prevention, testing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) [1, …

Introduction

In Kenya, men who have sex with men (MSM) are increasingly using virtual sites, including web‐based apps, to meet sex partners. We examined HIV testing, HIV prevalence, awareness of HIV‐positive status and linkage to antiretroviral therapy (…

Little was known of SARS-CoV-2 a few months ago. However, since then this highly-contagious virus has spread worldwide and has created enormous turmoil all around the world. It has caused major devastation to health, economies, education and has percolated through almost all aspects of daily…

Introduction

People living with HIV (PLWH) are mainly African or Asian, the majority female. In contrast, pharmaceutical companies typically conduct phase 3 regulatory randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in high-income countries (HICs), where PLWH are mainly white males…

Introduction

In South Africa, HIV‐infected men are less likely than women to test and know their status (the first UNAIDS “90‐90‐90” target), and men have worse outcomes across the HIV care cascade. HIV self‐testing (HIVST) may address this testing disparity but…

Introduction

The COVID‐19 pandemic reached the African continent in less than three months from when the first cases were reported from mainland China. As COVID‐19 preparedness and response plans were rapidly instituted across sub‐Saharan Africa, many governments and…

Introduction

As adolescents and young people living with HIV (AYLH) age, they face a “transition cascade,” a series of steps associated with transitions in their care as they become responsible for their own healthcare. In high‐income countries, this usually includes…

SETTING: Recent evidence indicates that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) related stigma act as a key barrier to the utilisation of associated occupational health services by South African health care workers (HCWs). It also highlights a dearth of…

Introduction

Men in sub‐Saharan Africa are less likely to use HIV testing services than their female counterparts. Norms of masculinity are frequently cited as the main barrier to men’s use of HIV testing services, but very little is known about how health institutions…

Introduction

Engaging at‐risk men in HIV prevention programs and services is a current priority, yet there are few effective ways to identify which men are at highest risk or how to best reach them. In this study we generated multi‐factor profiles of HIV acquisition/…

Thirty years into the HIV response, there is growing recognition that engaging men will be key to reaching the global UNAIDS fast‐track targets of 90‐90‐90 by the end of 2020 – whereby 90% of people living with HIV know their status, 90% of those who know they are positive are on antiretroviral…

Person‐centered care through integration of services and engaging clients in their own care is essential to achieving epidemic control of HIV. Verticalization of services along the care continuum contributes to inequities in access to care and leads to stigma and discrimination. Our experience…

Introduction

Few studies have systematically described population‐level differences comparing men and women across the continuum of routine HIV care. This study quantifies differentials in HIV care, treatment and mortality outcomes for men and women over…

Background

HIV diagnosis is a critical step in linking HIV-infected individuals to care and treatment and linking HIV-uninfected persons to prevention services. However, the uptake of HIV testing remains low in many countries. HIV self-screening (HIVSS) is acceptable to…

Background
HIV and TB programs have rapidly scaled-up over the past decade in Sub-Saharan Africa and uninterrupted supplies of those medicines are critical to their success. However, estimates of stock-outs are largely unknown. This survey aimed to estimate the extent of…