Resource Library

SETTING: Recent evidence indicates that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) related stigma act as a key barrier to the utilisation of associated occupational health services by South African health care workers (HCWs). It also highlights a dearth of…

Introduction: 

Heterosexual men are not considered a key population in the HIV response and are mostly absent from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) studies to date. Yet, South African men face considerable HIV risk. We estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of providing oral PrEP,…

The HIV pandemic provides lessons for the response to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: no vaccine is available for either and there are no licensed pharmaceuticals for COVID-19, just as there was not for HIV infection in the early years. Population behaviour will determine…

Background: Stakeholders question whether implementation science (IS) is successful in conducting rigorous science that expedites the inclusion of health innovations into policies and accelerates the pace and scale of health service delivery into clinical and public health…

BACKGROUND: Little is known about contextual factors that predict long-term mortality following HIV testing in resource-limited settings. We…

There is a need for a culturally adapted, evidence-based, psychotherapy treatment that is effective, acceptable, and feasible for integration into primary care in South Africa. This qualitative study used exit interviews to examine participants' experiences of an adapted cognitive-behavioural…

Increased coverage of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is needed in countries with high HIV prevalence. We applied an HIV-prevention cascade to identify gaps in male circumcision coverage in Zambia. We used survey data collected in 2013 and 2014/15 to describe circumcision coverage at…

Stigma and discrimination affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people compromise health and human rights and exacerbate the HIV epidemic. Scant research has explored effective LGBT stigma reduction strategies in low- and middle-income countries. We developed and pilot-tested…

There has been a proliferation of organizations in Zambia touting the mobilization of traditional games as a tool to prevent HIV. However, there is a dearth of evidence on how culturally important activities like traditional games are being incorporated into programing. The purpose of this study…

The HIV response is hampered by many obstacles to progression along the HIV care cascade, with men, in particular, experiencing different forms of disruption. One group of men, whose stories remain untold, are those who have succumbed to HIV-related illness. In this paper, we explore how next-of…

South Africa continues to bear a heavy burden of HIV and a significant proportion of the nation's population consists of immigrants from other severely afflicted African nations. Yet little is known about how migrant populations respond to HIV in shifting cultural and clinical landscapes.…

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how 'real-world' constraints on the allocative and technical efficiency of HIV prevention programmes affect resource allocation and the number of infections averted.

DESIGN: Epidemiological modelling and economic analyses in…

Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT) was designed to study how young adults navigate sexual relationships and childbearing during a generalized HIV epidemic. TLT began in 2009 with a population-representative sample of 1,505 women and 574 men between the ages of 15 and 25 living in Balaka, southern Malawi,…

BACKGROUND: In preventing the transfer of HIV to their children, the Ministry of Health in Mozambique recommends all…

BACKGROUND: In Mozambique, the widow is traditionally required to undergo a cleansing ritual called pita-kufa, which generally involves…

The Population Council leads Evidence to End FGM/C: Research to Help Girls and Women Thrive—a UKAID-funded research programme to help end female genital…

Adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV due to a range of social and structural factors. As they transition to adulthood, they are recipients of increasing blame for HIV infection and 'improper' sex, as well as increasing scrutiny, restrictions and…

February 5, 2018

Project SOAR conducts HIV operations research around the world to identify practical solutions to improve HIV prevention, care, and treatment services. This collaborative five-year project (2014–2019), funded by the U. S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the U. S. Agency for…

HIV infection continues to pose a critical risk to health in many countries. UNAIDS estimates that as of 2016 the total HIV-infected population was 36.7 million, including 1.8 million people newly infected that year. Although some 19.5 million people are receiving antiretroviral treatment, a…

Evidence shows that HIV prevalence among young women in sub-Saharan Africa increases almost five-fold between ages 15 and 24, with almost a quarter of young women infected by their early-to mid-20s. Transactional sex or material exchange for sex is a relationship dynamic that has been shown to…

Objective: To determine the uptake of home-based HIV counselling and testing (HCT) in four communities of the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial in Zambia among adolescents aged 15–19 years and explore factors associated with HCT uptake.

Design: The…

Most HIV research in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) ignores persons aged 50 years and above, though a few studies have reported a high HIV prevalence among older people. This study aimed to estimate socio-demographic inequalities in HIV testing behaviour and HIV prevalence among adults aged 50+ years…

In resource-limited settings, people with disabilities have been left behind in the response to HIV. In the HandiVIH study, we estimate and compare HIV prevalence and associated risk factors between people with and without disabilities.

HIV-related stigma hampers treatment and prevention efforts worldwide. Effective interventions to counter HIV-related stigma are greatly needed. Although the "contact hypothesis" suggests that personal contact with persons living with HIV (PLHIV) may reduce stigmatizing attitudes in the general…

This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and related risks among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Dodoma Municipality, Tanzania. They used respondent-driven sampling to recruit 409 MSM aged 18 years and over. Participants completed a…

Men’s gender role conflict and stress (GRC/S), the psychological strain they experience around fulfilling expectations of themselves as men, has been largely unexplored in HIV prevention research. We examined associations between both men’s gender norms and GRC/S and three HIV risk behaviors…

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is recognised as an important public health and social problem, with far reaching consequences for women’s physical and emotional health and social well-being. Furthermore, controlling behaviour by a partner has a similar impact on women’s well-being, yet little…

There is now a growing body of research indicating that prevention interventions can reduce intimate partner violence (IPV); much less is known, however, about how couples exposed to these interventions experience the change process, particularly in low-income countries. Understanding the…