Young female sex-workers (FSW) aged 18-24 are at high risk of HIV due to high numbers of sexual partners, difficulty negotiating condom use, increased risk of gender-based violence, and limited access to services. Here we describe changes in sexual behaviours among young FSW across Zimbabwe between 2013 and 2016, and risk factors for prevalent HIV in 2013 and 2016.
Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Sub-Saharan Africa. The risk of developing cancer is increased for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is unknown which factors predict the initiation of curative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in resource-limited settings and whether HIV is associated with initiating curative CRT in settings with a high HIV burden.
Vaginal dysbiosis and STIs are important drivers of the HIV epidemic and reproductive complications. These conditions remain prevalent, partly because most cases are asymptomatic. We have shown that inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta and interferon-gamma-induced protein (IP)-10 are biomarkers for detecting asymptomatic STIs and vaginal dysbiosis (bacterial vaginosis (BV) or intermediate microbiota). This study aimed to validate the performance of these biomarkers in African women recruited regardless of symptoms.
Several tools have been developed to collect information on health facility preparedness to provide sexual violence response services; however, little guidance exists on how this information can be used to better understand which functions a facility can perform.
One of the factors linked to South Africa's relatively high maternal mortality ratio is late utilization of antenatal care (ANC). Early utilization is especially important in South Africa due to the high HIV prevalence amongst pregnant women. This study examined the impact of a package intervention, consisting of an incentive called the Thula Baba Box (TBB) and a community health worker (CHW) programme, on early utilization of ANC.
Unintended pregnancy and HIV infection present dual risks for young women in sub-Saharan Africa. New multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) are in development to simultaneously prevent unintended pregnancy and HIV, but there is a need for end-user research to ensure these products suit women's needs. The Tablet, Rings and Injectables as Options (TRIO) for women study took place in Kisumu, Kenya, and Soshanguve, South Africa, with the goal of eliciting young women's feedback on three potential MPTs.
The Xpert CT/NG showed high accuracy among young South African women and combined with the OSOM TV proved a useful tool in this high HIV/STI burden setting. Further implementation and cost-effectiveness studies are needed to assess the potential role of this assay for diagnostic STI testing in LMICs.
Past endeavours to deal with the obstacle of expensive Cluster of Difference 4 (CD4(+)) count diagnostics in resource-limited settings have left a long trail of suggested continuous CD4(+) count clinical covariates that turned out to be a potentially important integral part of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment process during disease progression. However, an evaluation to determine the strongest candidates among these CD4(+) count covariates has not been well documented.
Despite the array of studies on infant feeding practices of HIV-infected women, gaps still exist in the understanding of the underlying reasons for their infant feeding choices. Potential for behavioural change exists, especially in the light of the 2016 updated World Health Organization guideline on HIV and infant feeding. The aim of this paper is to determine the rate of adoption of exclusive breastfeeding in this cohort, examine the determinants of infant feeding choices of HIV-infected women and assess the underlying reasons for these choices.