HIV prevention for key- and other vulnerable populations

The world has committed to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030 as part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), but, as UNAIDS points out in its 90-90-90: An ambitious treatment target to help end the AIDS epidemic guidelines, “it will be impossible to end the epidemic without bringing HIV treatment to all who need it.” The “90-90-90” targets are to ensure that by 2020, 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status, 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90% of all people receiving ART will have viral suppression. Achieving these targets will require effective programs and interventions aimed at reaching high prevalence geographic areas and populations who are most vulnerable and marginalized.

The definition of key populations who are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection varies from country to country, however, most include at least the four key populations identified by PEPFAR:

  • Gay men and other men who have sex with men
  • People who inject drugs
  • Sex workers
  • Transgender people

In southern Africa, populations like young women and girls, pregnant women, orphans and vulnerable children (OVC), long-distance truck drivers (LDTD), fishing communities, miners, and refugees and displaced people have increased risk of HIV. For the purpose of this resource collection, these groups will be referred to as other vulnerable populations.

This resource collection is relevant for anyone responsible for the design and implementation of HIV and AIDS programs, including, public health officials, policy-makers, advocates, and civil society. It contains recent research, global guidelines, and other publications focusing on improving the quality and reach of essential health services.


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Title Author Year of publication
A Comparison of Home-Based Versus Outreach Event-Based Community HIV Testing in Ugandan Fisherfolk Communities Laura M. Bogart, Glenn J. Wagner, William Musoke, Rose Naigino, Sebastian Linnemayr, Emily Maistrellis, David J. Klein, Riana B. Jumamil, Barbara Mukasa, Ingrid V. Bassett, Thomas P. Giordano, Rhoda K. Wanyenze 2017
Estimating Numbers of Orphans and Vulnerable Children – A Test of Regression Modeling Brodish P, Charyeva Z, Foreit K 2017
Gender-Specific Combination HIV Prevention for Youth in High-Burden Settings: The MP3 Youth Observational Pilot Study Protocol Buttolph J, Inwani I, Agot K, Cleland CM, Cherutich P, Kiarie JN, Osoti A, Celum CL, Baeten JM, Nduati R, Kinuthia J, Hallett TB, Alsallaq R, Kurth AE 2017
Geographical disparities in HIV prevalence and care among men who have sex with men in Malawi: results from a multisite cross-sectional survey Wirtz, Andrea L et al. 2017
Health Provider Views on Improving Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Coastal Kenya Micheni Murugi, Kombo Bernadette K., Secor Andrew, Simoni Jane M., Operario Don, van der Elst Elise M., Mugo Peter, Kanungi Jennifer, Sanders Eduard J., and Graham Susan M. 2017
HIV and STIs among men who have sex with men in Dodoma municipality, Tanzania: a cross-sectional study Mmbaga, E.J., Moen, K., Makyao, N., Mpembeni, R., and Leshabari, M.T. 2017
Prevalence of HIV infection among people with disabilities: a population-based observational study in Yaoundé, Cameroon (HandiVIH) De Beaudrap, P., Beninguisse, G., Pasquier, E., et al. 2017
Project Shikamana: Baseline Findings From a Community Empowerment–Based Combination HIV Prevention Trial Among Female Sex Workers in Iringa, Tanzania Kerrigan, Deanna; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Beckham, Sarah; Mwampashi, Ard; Shembilu, Catherine; Mantsios, Andrea; Leddy, Anna; Davis, Wendy; Galai, Noya 2017
Searching for the Second R in Sexual and Reproductive Health and … Rights Luisa Orza, Tyler Crone, Julie Mellin et al. 2017
Sexual Behavior among Orphaned Adolescents in Western Kenya: A Comparison of Institutional- and Family-Based Care Settings Embleton, L., Nyandat, J., Ayuku, D., et al. 2017
Sexual learning among East African adolescents in the context of generalized HIV epidemics: A systematic qualitative meta-synthesis Amelia S. Knopf, Kim R. McNealy, Halima Al-Khattab, Lisa Carter-Harris, Ukamaka Marian Oruche, Violet Naanyu, Claire Burke Draucker 2017
Statistical Models for Incorporating Data From Routine HIV Testing of Pregnant Women at Antenatal Clinics into HIV/AIDS Epidemic Estimates Sheng, B., Marsh, K., Slavkovic, A.B., et al. 2017
Supplement: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights and HIV Programming Among Young People Most Affected by HIV: Lessons From the Link Up Project in Five Countries Edited by David Ross and John Santelli 2017
The HIV care cascade among female sex workers in Zimbabwe: results of a population-based survey from the Sisters Antiretroviral therapy Programme for Prevention of HIV, an Integrated Response (SAPPH-IRe) Trial Cowan, F.M., Davey, C.B., Fearon, E., et al. 2017
Trading sex for security: Unemployment and the unequal HIV burden among young women in developing nations Kelly F Austin, Michelle M Choi, Virginia Berndt 2017
When women lead, change happens UNAIDS 2017
A Randomized Control Trial of a Conditional Cash Transfer to Reduce HIV Infection in Young Women in South Africa: Study Design and Baseline Results Pettifor, A., MacPhail, C., Selin, A., et al. 2016
A systematic review of interventions to improve prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission service delivery and promote retention Ambia J, Mandala J 2016
A systematic review of interventions to improve prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission service delivery and promote retention. Ambia J, Mandala J 2016
Acceptability of a Community-Based Outreach HIV-Testing Intervention Using Oral Fluid Collection Devices and Web-Based HIV Test Result Collection Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants: A Mixed-Method Study Jasna Loos, Lazare Manirankunda, Tom Platteau, Laura Albers, Katrien Fransen, Tine Vermoesen, Fiona Namanya, Christiana Nöstlinger 2016
Achieving equity in HIV-treatment outcomes: can social protection improve adolescent ART-adherence in South Africa? Cluver LD, Toska E, Orkin FM, Meinck F, Hodes R, Yakubovich AR, Sherr L 2016
Adolescents with HIV need to be rapidly linked to specialist care to have best chances of sustaining engagement with HIV services Michael Carter 2016
Anti-retroviral Therapy Based HIV Prevention Among a Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Cape Town, South Africa: Use of Post-exposure Prophylaxis and Knowledge on Pre-exposure Prophylaxis J. M. Hugo, R. D. Stall, K. Rebe, J. E. Egan, G. De Swardt, H. Struthers and J. A. McIntyre 2016
Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Enhancing Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults 13–24 Years of Age: A Review of the Evidence Base Shaw, Sarah MA; Amico, K. Rivet PhD 2016
Bewitching sex workers, blaming wives: HIV/AIDS, stigma, and the gender politics of panic in western Kenya Elizabeth J. Pfeiffer & Harrison M. K. Maithya 2016
Breaking Barriers to HIV Prevention for Adolescent Girls and Young Women: A Field Report on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in the U.S. DREAMS Partnership in South Africa and Kenya Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE) 2016
Building Evidence to Guide PrEP Introduction for Adolescent Girls and Young Women Nanlesta Pilgrim, Sanyukta Mathur, Ann Gottert, Naomi Rutenberg, and Julie Pulerwitz 2016
Characterizing the Individual, Social, and Structural Determinants of Condom Use Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Swaziland Brown Carolyn Adele, Grosso Ashley Lynn, Adams Darrin, Sithole Bhekie, Ketende Sosthenes, Greene Jessica, Maziya Sibusiso, Mnisi Zandile, Mabuza Xolile, and Baral Stefan 2016
Clinical care of incarcerated people with HIV, viral hepatitis, or tuberculosis Josiah D Rich, Curt G Beckwith, Alexandria Macmadu, Brandon D L Marshall, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Joseph J Amon, M-J Milloy, Maximilian R F King, Jorge Sanchez, Lukoye Atwoli, and Frederick L Altice 2016
Combination Social Protection for Reducing HIV-Risk Behavior Among Adolescents in South Africa Cluver, Lucie D. PhD; Orkin, F. Mark PhD; Yakubovich, Alexa R. MSc; Sherr, Lorraine PhD 2016
Community-Based HIV and Health Testing for High-Risk Adolescents and Youth Reif Lindsey K., Rivera Vanessa, Louis Bianca, Bertrand Rachel, Peck Mireille, Anglade Benedict, Seo Grace, Abrams Elaine J., Pape Jean W., Fitzgerald Daniel W., and McNairy Margaret L 2016
Community-Based HIV and Health Testing for High-Risk Adolescents and Youth Reif Lindsey K., Rivera Vanessa, Louis Bianca, Bertrand Rachel, Peck Mireille, Anglade Benedict, Seo Grace, Abrams Elaine J., Pape Jean W., Fitzgerald Daniel W., and McNairy Margaret L. 2016
Contraceptive Use and Uptake of HIV-Testing among Sub-Saharan African Women Center K, Gunn JK, Asaolu IO, Gibson SJ, Ehiri JE 2016
Depression, retention in care, and uptake of PMTCT service in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo: a prospective cohort Kelly A. Yotebieng, Kunuwo Fokong, and Marcel Yotebieng 2016
Diagnosis and Disclosure of HIV Status: Implications for Women's Risk of Physical Partner Violence in the Postpartum Period Maman S, Groves AK, McNaughton Reyes HL, Moodley D. 2016
Do no harm - Health, human rights and people who use drugs UNAIDS 2016
Engagement of Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in the Response to HIV: A Critical Step in Achieving an AIDS-Free Generation Stahlman S, Beyrer C, Sullivan PS, Mayer KH and Baral SD 2016
Engaging private health providers to extend the global availability of PMTCT services James J. White, Sean Callahan, Samantha Lint, Helen Li, and Aida Yemaneberhan 2016
Estimating the burden of disease attributable to injecting drug use as a risk factor for HIV, hepatitis C, and hepatitis B: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Louisa Degenhardt, Fiona Charlson, Jeff Stanaway, Sarah Larney, Lily T Alexander, Matthew Hickman, Benjamin Cowie, Wayne D Hall, John Strang, Harvey Whiteford, Theo Vos 2016
Facilitators and Barriers to Linkage to HIV Care among Female Sex Workers Receiving HIV Testing Services at a Community-Based Organization in Periurban Uganda: A Qualitative Study Nakanwagi, S., Matovu, J., Kintu, B., Kaharuza, F. and Wanyenze, R. 2016
Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support Sarah K. Calabrese , Kristen Underhill, Valerie A. Earnshaw, Nathan B. Hansen, Trace S. Kershaw, Manya Magnus, Douglas S. Krakower, Kenneth H. Mayer, Joseph R. Betancourt 2016
From conflict to partnership: growing collaboration between police and NGOs in countries with concentrated epidemics among key populations Nicholas Thomson, Diane Riley, Anne Bergenstrom, Jenae Carpenter and Alex Zelitchenko 2016
Gaps in Adolescent Engagement in Antenatal Care and Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Services in Kenya Ronen K, McGrath CJ, Langat AC, Kinuthia J, Omolo D, Singa B, Katana AK, NgʼAngʼA LW, John-Stewart G 2016
Global burden of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis in prisoners and detainees Kate Dolan, Andrea L Wirtz, Babak Moazen, Martial Ndeffo-mbah, Alison Galvani, Stuart A Kinner, Ryan Courtney, Martin McKee, Joseph J Amon, Lisa Maher, Margaret Hellard, Chris Beyrer and Fredrick L Altice 2016
Greentree II: Violence against Women and Girls, and HIV - Report on a high-level consultation on the evidence and implications Lori Heise and Elizabeth McGrory 2016
Harm Reduction for Injecting Drug Users Strengthening High-Impact Interventions for an AIDS-free Generation (AIDSFree) 2016
Harnessing the Power of Data for Girls: Taking stock and looking ahead to 2030 UNICEF 2016
HIV treatment programmes need to prepare for the 'youth bulge', South African experience shows Carole Leach-Lemens 2016
HIV, prisoners, and human rights Leonard S Rubenstein, Joseph J Amon, Megan McLemore, Patrick Eba, Kate Dolan, Rick Lines, Chris Beyrer 2016
HIV-Infected Ugandan Women on Antiretroviral Therapy Maintain HIV-1 RNA Suppression Across Periconception, Pregnancy, and Postpartum Periods Matthews LT, Ribaudo HB, Kaida A, Bennett K, Musinguzi N, Siedner MJ, Kabakyenga J, Hunt PW, Martin JN, Boum Y, Haberer JE, Bangsberg DR 2016
How I Wish This Thing Was Initiated 100 Years Ago!" Willingness to Take Daily Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Kenya Karuga RN, Njenga SN, Mulwa R, Kilonzo N, Bahati P, O'reilley K, Gelmon L, Mbaabu S, Wachihi C, Githuka G, Kiragu M. 2016
Implementation and Operational Research: Cohort Analysis of Program Data to Estimate HIV Incidence and Uptake of HIV-Related Services Among Female Sex Workers in Zimbabwe, 2009–2014 Hargreaves, James R. PhD; Mtetwa, Sibongile MSc; Davey, Calum MSc; Dirawo, Jeffrey MSc; Chidiya, Samson PhD; Benedikt, Clemens PhD; Naperiela Mavedzenge, Sue PhD; Wong-Gruenwald, Ramona PhD; Hanisch, Dagmar PhD; Magure, Tapiwa PhD; Mugurungi, Owen PhD; Co 2016
Implementation and Operational Research: Effectiveness and Patient Acceptability of a Sexually Transmitted Infection Self-Testing Program in an HIV Care Setting Barbee, Lindley A. MD, MPH; Tat, Susana MPH; Dhanireddy, Shireesha MD; Marrazzo, Jeanne M. MD, MPH 2016
Increased adolescent HIV testing with a hybrid mobile strategy in Uganda and Kenya Kadede, Kevin; Ruel, Theodore; Kabami, Jane; Ssemmondo, Emmanuel; Sang, Norton; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig R.; Liegler, Teri; Clark, Tamara D.; Charlebois, Edwin D.; Petersen, Maya L.; Kamya, Moses R.; Havlir, Diane V.; Chamie, G 2016
Indian study proves that more people virally suppressed in a population equals fewer HIV infections Gus Cairns 2016
Information and communications technologies: Engaging the private sector and communities in HIV programmes with gay men and other men who have sex with men UNAIDS 2016
Investing When It Counts: Reviewing the Evidence and Charting a Course of Research and Action for Very Young Adolescents Katharine McCarthy, Martha Brady, Kelly Hallman 2016
It’s Time to Listen: Young Women and HIV/AIDS in Zambia CSIS Global Health Policy Center 2016
JAIDS Supplement: HIV Prevention of Transgender Populations Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JAIDS) 2016
Mapping & appraisal of HIV prevention and care interventions for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe – a report of the SHARP programme Adam Bourne, Elizabeth Fearon, Will Nutland 2016
Migration and HIV infection in Malawi Anglewicz, Philip; VanLandingham, Mark; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Kohler, Hans-Peter 2016
Migration, Mobility and Marginalisation: Consequences for Sexual and Gender Minorities IDS 2016
Neglect of infectious diseases in prisons highlighted at AIDS 2016 Theo Smart 2016
New strategy aims to end AIDS in children by 2020 Keith Alcorn 2016
Older men and young women drive South African HIV epidemic Amy Maxmen 2016
One Youth Can: Facilitator's Guide and Workbook Sonke Gender Justice Network 2016
Opt-Out Referral of Men Who Have Sex With Men Newly Diagnosed With HIV to Partner Notification Officers: Results and Yield of Sexual Partners Being Contacted Rane, Vinita MD; Tomnay, Jane PhD; Fairley, Christopher PhD; Read, Tim PhD; Bradshaw, Catriona PhD; Carter, Tom RN; Chen, Marcus PhD 2016
People shifting from paediatric to adult HIV care have a high risk of ART failure Michael Carter 2016
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for People Who Inject Drugs: Community voices on pros, cons, and concerns International Network of People who Use Drugs (INPUD) 2016
Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection and new sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men Kojima, Noah; Davey, Dvora Joseph; Klausner, Jeffrey D. 2016
Predictors of HIV Testing among Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study Ibitola O. Asaolu, Jayleen K. Gunn, Katherine E. Center, Mary P. Koss, Juliet I. Iwelunmor, John E. Ehiri 2016
Preferences for ARV-based HIV prevention methods among men and women, adolescent girls and female sex workers in Gauteng Province, South Africa: a protocol for a discrete choice experiment Matthew Quaife, Robyn Eakle, Maria Cabrera, Peter Vickerman, Motlalepule Tsepe, Fiona Cianci, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Fern Terris-Prestholt 2016
Prevalence of HIV and Associated Risks of Sex Work among Youth in the Slums of Kampala Monica H. Swahn, Rachel Culbreth, Laura F. Salazar, Rogers Kasirye and Janet Seeley 2016
Prevention of transmission of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis in prisoners Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Stewart E Reid, Amee Schwitters, Lucas Wiessing, Nabila El-Bassel, Kate Dolan, Babak Moazen, Andrea L Wirtz, Annette Verster and Frederick L Altice 2016
Project Gel a Randomized Rectal Microbicide Safety and Acceptability Study in Young Men and Transgender Women McGowan I, Cranston RD, Mayer KH, Febo I, Duffill K, Siegel A, et al. 2016
Psychological and behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk: evidence from a randomized control trial among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents in South Africa Thurman, T.R., Kidman, R., Carton, T.W., and Chiroro, P. AIDS Care 2016
Public health and international drug policy Csete, Joanne et al. 2016
Raising an AIDS-free generation: Evaluation of the Global Fund Orphans & Vulnerable Children Programme NACOSA 2016
Resourcing Resilience: Social Protection for HIV Prevention Amongst Children and Adolescents in Eastern and Southern Africa Toska, E., Gittings, L., Hodes, R., et al. 2016
Retention in care during the first 3 years of antiretroviral therapy for women in Malawi's option B+ programme: an observational cohort study Andreas D Haas, Lyson Tenthani, Malango T Msukwa, Kali Tal, Andreas Jahn, Oliver J Gadabu, Adrian Spoerri, Frank Chimbwandira, Joep J van Oosterhout, Olivia Keiser 2016
Rethinking HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis prevention strategy Jesne Kistan, David Serwadda 2016
Sexual risk related behaviour among youth living with HIV in central Uganda: implications for HIV prevention Racheal Ankunda, Lynn Muhimbuura Atuyambe, and Noah Kiwanuka 2016
Should HIV testing for all pregnant women continue? Cost-effectiveness of universal antenatal testing compared to focused approaches across high to very low HIV prevalence settings Ishikawa, N., Dalal, S., Johnson, C., et al. 2016
Start Free, Stay Free, AIDS Free UNAIDS 2016
Stigma, Facility Constraints, and Personal Disbelief: Why Women Disengage from HIV Care During and After Pregnancy in Morogoro Region, Tanzania Shannon A. McMahon, Caitlin E. Kennedy, Peter J. Winch, Miriam Kombe, Japhet Killewo and Charles Kilewo 2016
Stop TB key populations brief Stop TB Partnership 2016
Structural drivers and social protection: mechanisms of HIV risk and HIV prevention for South African adolescents Lucie Dale Cluver, Frederick Mark Orkin, Franziska Meinck, Mark Edward Boyes and Lorraine Sherr 2016
Structural drivers and social protection: mechanisms of HIV risk and HIV prevention for South African adolescents Lucie Dale Cluver, Frederick Mark Orkin, Franziska Meinck, Mark Edward Boyes, and Lorraine Sherr 2016
Supervision and Adolescent-Sensitive Clinic Care: Combination Social Protection and Reduced Unprotected Sex Among HIV-Positive Adolescents in South Africa Toska E, Cluver LD, Boyes ME, Isaacsohn M, Hodes R, Sherr L. School 2016
TB Key Populations Brief: Children Stop TB Partnership 2016
TB Key Populations Brief: Miners Stop TB Partnership 2016
TB Key Populations Brief: Mobile populations Stop TB Partnership 2016
TB Key Populations Brief: People who use drugs Stop TB Partnership 2016
TB Key Populations Brief: Prisoners Stop TB Partnership 2016
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Safety for Women and their Infants during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Systematic Review Mofenson LM, Baggaley RC, Mameletzis I. 2016
Testing a counselling intervention in antenatal care for women experiencing partner violence: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial in Johannesburg, South Africa Pallitto, C., García-Moreno, C., Stöeckl, H., et al. 2016
Testing the hypothesis that treatment can eliminate HIV: a nationwide, population-based study of the Danish HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men Justin T Okano, Danielle Robbins, Laurence Palk, Jan Gerstoft, Niels Obel, Prof Sally Blower 2016
The effect of a conditional cash transfer on HIV incidence in young women in rural South Africa (HPTN 068): a phase 3, randomised controlled trial Audrey Pettifor, et al. 2016
The global response to HIV in men who have sex with men Chris Beyrer, Stefan D Baral, Chris Collins, Eugene T Richardson, Patrick S Sullivan, Jorge Sanchez, Gift Trapence, Elly Katabira, Michel Kazatchkine, Owen Ryan, Andrea L Wirtz, Kenneth H Mayer 2016
The Impact of Methadone Maintenance Treatment on HIV Risk Behaviors among High-Risk Injection Drug Users: A Systematic Review. Karki P, Shrestha R, Huedo-Medina TB, Copenhaver M 2016
The Lancet transgender health series The Lancet 2016
The rectal mucosa and condomless receptive anal intercourse in HIV-negative MSM: implications for HIV transmission and prevention C F Kelley et al. 2016
The youth treatment bulge in South Africa: increasing numbers, inferior outcomes among adolescents on ART M. Maskew, J. Bor, W. MacLeod, S. Carmona, G. Sherman, M.P. Fox 2016
TOOLS TO PROMOTE GENDER RESPONSIVENESS IN HIV PREVENTION PROGRAMS FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS Nancy C. Lee, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Women's Health and Director, Office on Women's Health and Richard Wolitski, Ph.D., Acting Director, Office of HIV/AIDS and Infectious Disease Policy, U.S. Department of Health 2016
Training of Trainers: Peer Education Program for Inmates and Staff to Reduce Tuberculosis and HIV Risk in Tanzania Prisons Mihyo, Zuki, Jennifer Casto, and Ignatio Chiyaka 2016
Transactional sex and risk for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis Joyce Wamoyi, Kirsten Stoebenau, Natalia Bobrova, Tanya Abramsky, Charlotte Watts 2016
Transgender people are at high risk for HIV, but too little is known about prevention and treatment for this population Liz Highleyman 2016
Transmission networks and risk of HIV infection in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a community-wide phylogenetic study Prof Tulio de Oliveira et al. 2016
Understanding the Intersection of Young Age, Mucosal Injury, and HIV Susceptibility Porter Kristen A., Turpin Jim, Begg Lisa, Brown Gina, Chakhtoura Nahida, Church Elizabeth, Grossman Cynthia, Wira Charles, and Veronese Fulvia 2016
United States Global Strategy to Empower Adolescent Girls United States Government 2016
Video: “I deserve respect for my work as a sex worker” Adella Mbabazi 2016
What Messages are Adolescent Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) Clients Getting and How? Findings From an Observational Study in Tanzania Boyee D, Peacock E, Plotkin M, Hellar AMahler H, Edouard E, Kisendi R, Mlanga E, Njeuhmeli E, Andrinopoulos K. 2016
Which men stand to benefit most from access to PrEP? Michael Carter 2016
Who needs to be targeted for HIV testing and treatment in KwaZulu-Natal? Results from a population-based survey. Huerga, Helena MD, PhD; Van Cutsem, Gilles MD, DTMH, MPH; Ben Farhat, Jihane MSc; Reid, Matthew MBChB, MPH; Bouhenia, Malika MPH; Maman, David MD, PhD; Wiesner, Lubbe PhD; Etard, Jean-François MD, PhD; Ellman, Tom MBChB, MSc, DTMH 2016
A Systematic Review of Interventions to Reduce Maternal Mortality among HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women Sara A Holtz, Rudi Thetard, Sarah N Konopka, Jennifer Albertini, Anouk Amzel, Karen P Fogg 2015
Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control Rachael C Dellar, Sarah Dlamini, Quarraisha Abdool Karim 2015
Cohort analysis of programme data to estimate HIV incidence and uptake of HIV-related services among female sex workers in Zimbabwe Hargreaves, Mtetwa, Davey C, Dirawo J, Chidiya S, Benedikt C, Naperiela Mavedzenge , Wong-Gruenwald , Hanisch D, Magure T, Mugurungi O, Cowan FM 2015
Defeating AIDS—advancing global health Prof Peter Piot, Salim S Abdool Karim, Robert Hecht, Helena Legido-Quigley, Kent Buse, John Stover, Stephen Resch, Theresa Ryckman, Sigrun Møgedal, Mark Dybul, Eric Goosby, Charlotte Watts, Nduku Kilonzo, Joanne McManus, Michel Sidibé 2015
Dispelling myths about sex workers and HIV Steffanie A Strathdee, Anna-Louise Crago, Jenny Butler, Linda-Gail Bekker, Chris Beyrer 2015
Disseminating Avahan Lessons in South Africa (DALSA) Fhi360 2015
Focus on women and girls The Global Fund 2015
Girlhood, Not Motherhood United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) 2015
Hands Off! A regional response to violence against sex workers in Southern Africa Aids Fonds 2015
HIV and AIDS risk perception among sex workers in semi-urban Blantyre, Malawi Donatien Twizelimana and Adamson S. Muula 2015
HIV cascade framework for key populations Caroline Francis, Steve Mills et al 2015
HIV Nursing Matters, Issue 2 Southern African HIV Clinicians Society 2015
HIV Nursing Matters, Issue 3 Southern African HIV Clinicians Society 2015
HIV Programs for Sex Workers: Lessons and Challenges for Developing and Delivering Programs David Wilson 2015
Mapping of health services along major transport corridors in East Africa International Organization for Migration (IOM), FHI 360 and North Star Alliance 2015
Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey Parinita Bhattacharjee, Leigh M. McClarty, Helgar Musyoki, John Anthony, Japheth Kioko, Shem Kaosa, Bernard E. Ogwang, George Githuka, Martin Sirengo, Sarah Birir, James F. Blanchard, Nicholas Muraguri, Shajy Isac, Stephen Moses 2015
Policy brief: Transgender people and HIV WHO 2015
Providing comprehensive health services for young key populations: needs, barriers and gaps Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Frances M Cowan, Joanna Busza, Carolyn Bolton-Moore, Karen Kelley, Lee Fairlie 2015
Quarterly Research Digest on HIV and Key Populations Mayer, K.H. and G. Ramjee 2015
Red Umbrella National Sex Work Programme Evaluation Joe Rossouw 2015
REPORT: Human Rights and the HIV Response in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region HEARD 2015
Representation and Participation of Key Populations on CCMs in Southern Africa Angela Kageni, Lucas Mwangi, Cleopatra Mugyenyi Kate Macintyre 2015
Social protection: potential for improving HIV outcomes among adolescents Lucie D Cluver, Rebecca J Hodes, Lorraine Sherr, F Mark Orkin, Franziska Meinck, Patricia Lim Ah Ken, Natalia E Winder-Rossi, Jason Wolfe, Marissa Vicari 2015
Success Story: Botswana engages civil society to deliver critical HIV prevention and treatment services to key populations Management Science for Health (MSH), BLC Project 2015
Success Story: Breaking new ground in Botswana: Silence Kills Support Group delivers services to key populations Management Sciences for Health (MSH), BLC Project 2015
The Smart Sex Worker’s Guide to SWIT 2015
What Does Not Work in Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Review of Evidence on Interventions Commonly Accepted as Best Practices Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli, Catherine Lane, Sylvia Wong 2015
A community empowerment approach to the HIV response among sex workers: effectiveness, challenges, and considerations for implementation and scale-up Deanna Kerrigan, Caitlin E Kennedy, Ruth Morgan-Thomas, Sushena Reza-Paul, Peninah Mwangi, Kay Thi Win, Allison McFall, Virginia A Fonner, Jennifer Butler 2014
A Review of Migrant and Mobile Populations within Border Areas of SADC: Implications for HIV Prevention Programming Jo Vearey, Elsa Oliveira, Matthew Wilhelm-Solomon, Stanford Mahati 2014
An action agenda for HIV and sex workers Prof Chris Beyrer, Anna-Louise Crago, MA, Prof Linda-Gail Bekker, PhD, Jenny Butler, PhD, Kate Shannon, PhD, Deanna Kerrigan, PhD, Michele R Decker, ScD, Stefan D Baral, MD, Tonia Poteat, PhD, Andrea L Wirtz, MHS, Brian W Weir, PhD, 2014
Bringing sex workers to the centre of the HIV response Pamela Das, Richard Horton 2014
Cash plus care: social protection cumulatively mitigates HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents in South Africa Cluver LD, Orkin FM, Boyes ME, Sherr L 2014
Combination HIV prevention for female sex workers: what is the evidence? Prof Linda-Gail Bekker, PhD, Leigh Johnson, PhD, Frances Cowan, MD, Cheryl Overs, BA, Donela Besada, MPH, Sharon Hillier, PhD, Willard Cates Jr, MD 2014
Combination Prevention of HIV - A Technical Guide to Working with Key Affected Populations Pathfinder 2014
Community-centered Clinical Services: Case Studies and Lessons Learned from Implementing Key Population Programs in India FHI 360 2014
Consensus estimates on key population size and HIV prevalence in Tanzania NACP 2014
Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations World Health Organization 2014
Cost of Providing Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis to Prevent HIV Infection Among Sex Workers in Kenya Annie Chen, George Kosimbei, Daniel Mwai, Arin Dutta 2014
DIFFICULT DECISIONS: A Tool for Care Workers The Teresa Group 2014
DREAMS Country Fact Sheets: Kenya PEPFAR 2014
DREAMS Country Fact Sheets: Lesotho PEPFAR 2014
DREAMS Country Fact Sheets: Malawi PEPFAR 2014
DREAMS Country Fact Sheets: Mozambique PEPFAR 2014
DREAMS Country Fact Sheets: South Afrca PEPFAR 2014
DREAMS Country Fact Sheets: Swaziland PEPFAR 2014
DREAMS Country Fact Sheets: Tanzania PEPFAR 2014
DREAMS Country Fact Sheets: Uganda PEPFAR 2014
DREAMS Country Fact Sheets: Zambia PEPFAR 2014
DREAMS Country Fact Sheets: Zimbabwe PEPFAR 2014
Empowering Key Populations for Sustainable HIV Prevention: Avahan in Andhra Pradesh 2003 – 2014 India HIV/AIDS Alliance 2014
Enhancing Benefits or Increasing Harms: Community Responses for HIV Among Men Who Have Sex With Men, Transgender Women, Female Sex Workers, and People Who Inject Drugs Baral, Stefan MD, MPH, MBA, CCFP, FRCPC; Holland, Claire E. MSPH; Shannon, Kate PhD; Logie, Carmen PhD; Semugoma, Paul MBBS; Sithole, Bhekie MS; Papworth, Erin MPH; Drame, Fatou PhD; Beyrer, Chris MD 2014
Facts about sex workers and the myths that help spread HIV The Lancet 2014
Global epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers: influence of structural determinants Dr Kate Shannon, PhD, Prof Steffanie A Strathdee, PhD, Shira M Goldenberg, PhD, Putu Duff, MSc, Peninah Mwangi, MA, Maia Rusakova, PhD, Sushena Reza-Paul, PhD, Joseph Lau, PhD, Kathleen Deering, PhD, Michael R Pickles, PhD, Prof Marie-C 2014
Global Fund Key Populations Action Plan 2014-2017 Global Fund 2014
Health vulnerabilities of mobile and migrant populations in and around the Port of Beira, Mozambique Kerry Selvester, Lourdes Fidalgo, Delmira Mahace, Victor Bie 2014
HIV and sex workers series: 5) Male sex workers: practices, contexts, and vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission Stefan David Baral, M Reuel Friedman, Scott Geibel, Kevin Rebe, Borche Bozhinov,Daouda Diouf, Keith Sabin, Claire E Holland, Roy Chan, Carlos F Cáceres 2014
HIV and sex workers series: 6) HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers Tonia Poteat, Andrea L Wirtz, Anita Radix, Annick Borquez, Alfonso Silva-Santisteban, Madeline B Deutsch, Sharful Islam Khan, Sam Winter, Don Operario 2014
HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers Dr Tonia Poteat, PhDl, Andrea L Wirtz, MHS, Anita Radix, MD, Annick Borquez, PhD, Alfonso Silva-Santisteban, MD, Madeline B Deutsch, MD, Sharful Islam Khan, PhD, Sam Winter, PhD, Don Operario, PhD 2014
Human rights violations against sex workers: burden and effect on HIV Dr Michele R Decker, ScD, Anna-Louise Crago, MA, Sandra K H Chu, LLM, Prof Susan G Sherman, PhD, Meena S Seshu, MSW, Kholi Buthelezi, Mandeep Dhaliwal, MD, Prof Chris Beyrer, MD 2014
Innovative Uses of Communication Technology for HIV Programming for MSM & TG Populations AIDSTAR-One 2014
Lesotho: Lives on the line: sex work in sub-Saharan Africa Adele Baleta 2014
Male sex workers: practices, contexts, and vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission Dr Stefan David Baral, MD, M Reuel Friedman, PhD, Scott Geibel, PhD, Kevin Rebe, MBChB, Borche Bozhinov, MD, Daouda Diouf, MSc, Keith Sabin, PhD, Claire E Holland, MSPH, Prof Roy Chan, MD, Carlos F Cáceres, MD 2014
Minimum package of services for female sex workers in Zambia Zambia Ministry of Health 2014
Most at Risk Populations – Long Distance Truck Drivers and HIV/AIDS in Uganda: Synthesis of Information and Evidence to Inform the Response KMCC Uganda 2014
PLoS publishes free special collection on HIV care and prevention for sex workers PLoS 2014
Responses to HIV in sexually exploited children or adolescents who sell sex Craig McClureemail, Caitlin Chandler, Susan Bissell 2014
Sex workers and sex work in South Africa: A Guide for Journalists and Writers Nomonde Nyembe, Rachel Zacharias, Ayesha Krige, Marlise Richter, Lesego Tlhwale and Mateenah Hunter 2014
Success Story: Collaborating for HIV services - Botswana Key Populations Symposium Management Sciences for Health (MSH), BLC Project 2014
Synthesis of the latest evidence on the HIV epidemic and programmatic response among people left behind in the ESA region Michel Alary, MD, PhD, Fernand A.Guedou, MD, PhD, Georges Batona, MSc 2014
Systematic review of facility-based sexual and reproductive health services for female sex workers in Africa Ashar Dhana, Stanley Luchters, Lizzie Moore, Yves Lafort, Anuradha Roy, Fiona Scorgie and Matthew Chersich 2014
Tanzania: National guideline for comprehensive package of HIV interventions for key populations NACP 2014
The UNAIDS Gap report 2014 UNAIDS 2014
Trafficking, sex work, and HIV: efforts to resolve conflicts Richard Steene, Smarajit Jana, Sushena Reza-Paul, Marlise Richter 2014
Triple jeopardy: Adolescent experiences of sex work and migration in Zimbabwe Joanna Busza, Sibongile Mtetwa, Petronella Chirawu, Frances Cowan 2014
Why are sex workers who use substances at risk for HIV? Maia Rusakova, Aliya Rakhmetova, Steffanie A Strathdee 2014
Working Together for an AIDS-free Future for Girls and Women PEPFAR 2014
"You are wasting our drugs”: health service barriers to HIV treatment for sex workers in Zimbabwe Sibongile Mtetwa, Joanna Busza, Samson Chidiya, Stanley Mungofa and Frances Cowan 2013
A rapid assessment of access to health care at selected one stop border posts (OSBP) in East Africa International Organization for Migration (IOM) 2013
Beginning to build the picture: South Africa National survey of sex worker knowledge, experiences and behaviour NACOSA, SWEAT 2013
Child-focused state cash transfers and adolescent risk of HIV infection in South Africa: a propensity-score-matched case-control study Lucie Cluver, Mark Boyes, Mark Orkin, Marija Pantelic, Thembela Molwena, Lorraine Sherr 2013
Children and AIDS: Sixth Stocktaking Report, 2013 UNICEF 2013
Engagement with HIV Prevention Treatment and Care among Female Sex Workers in Zimbabwe: a Respondent Driven Sampling Survey Frances M. Cowan , Sibongile Mtetwa , Calum Davey , Elizabeth Fearon , Jeffrey Dirawo , Ramona Wong-Gruenwald , Theresa Ndikudze , Samson Chidiya , Clemens Benedikt , Joanna Busza , James R. Hargreaves 2013
Estimating the size of the sex worker population in South Africa, 2013 SANAC 2013
Implementing Comprehensive HIV/STI Programmes with Sex Workers WHO, UNFPA, UNAIDS, NSWP, World Bank, UNDP 2013
International Migration, Health and Human Rights International Organization for Migration (IOM) 2013
Mapping sex workers in South Africa Jerushah Rangasami 2013
Modified social ecological model: a tool to guide the assessment of the risks and risk contexts of HIV epidemics Stefan Baral, Carmen H Logie, Ashley Grosso, Andrea L Wirtz and Chris Beyrer 2013
National Strategic Plan for HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment for Sex workers SANAC 2013
Oscillating Migration Driving HIV and TB in sub-Saharan Africa Rod Bennett, Brian Williams 2013
Priority interventions to reduce HIV transmission in sex work settings in sub-Saharan Africa and delivery of these services Matthew F Chersich, Stanley Luchters, Innocent Ntaganira, Antonio Gerbase, Ying-Ru Lo, Fiona Scorgie and Richard Steen 2013
Tanzania: HIV and STI biological and behavioral survey NACP 2013
Women and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa Gita Ramjee, Brodie Daniels 2013
Behavioral and Biomedical Combination Strategies for HIV Prevention Linda-Gail Bekker, Chris Beyrer, and Thomas C. Quinn 2012
Burden of HIV among female sex workers in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis Stefan Baral, Chris Beyrer, Kathryn Muessig, Tonia Poteat, Andrea L Wirtz, Michele R Decker, Susan G Sherman, Deanna Kerrigan 2012
Determinants of HIV in key hotspots on the southern transport corridor: Maputo to Swaziland Kerry Selvester, Delmira Mahace, Victor Bie, Alfred Mndzebele 2012
Determinants of HIV in Key Hotspots on the Southern Transport Corridor: Maputo to Swaziland K Selvester, D Cambaco, V Bie, A Mndzebele 2012
Elevated HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam: a systematic review Macarena C García, Samantha B Meyer, Paul Ward 2012
Female sex workers in Africa: Epidemiology overview, data gaps, ways forward E.N. Ngugi, E. Roth, Theresa Mastin, M.G. Nderitu, Seema Yasmin 2012
HIV Behavioral and Biological Surveillance Survey Among Female Sex Workers in Dar es Salaam, 2010 NACP 2012
Key Population Strategies Seychelles Sabrina Mousbe, Rosie Bistoquet 2012
Key Populations in Zimbabwe Freeman Dube 2012
Key Populations: South Africa, SADC Regional Consultation on Key Populations Department of Health South Africa, South African National AIDS Council 2012
Migration and health in Southern Africa Dr Jo Vearey 2012
Prevention and treatment of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections for sex workers in low- and middle-income countries - Recommendations for a public health approach World Health Organization (WHO) 2012
Rewriting the narrative of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa Stefan Baral & Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya 2012
SAHARA-J: Journal of social aspects of HIV/AIDS Social Aspects of the HIV/AIDS Research Alliance (SAHARA) 2012
South Africa: Your guide to government health services International Organization for Migration (IOM) 2012
The role of schools in supporting HIV-affected children in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review Andersen, Louise Buhl 2012
The Tingathe programme: a pilot intervention using community health workers to create a continuum of care in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) cascade of services in Malawi Maria H Kim, Saeed Ahmed, W Chris Buck, Geoffrey A Preidis, Mina C Hosseinipour, Avni Bhalakia, Debora Nanthuru, Peter N Kazembe, Frank Chimbwandira, Thomas P Giordano, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Gordon E Schutze, and Mark W Kline 2012
Report of the situation analysis of the magnitude, behavioural patterns, contributing factors, current interventions and impact of sex work in HIV prevention in Malawi Robert Mthenga Chizimba, Grace Tikambenji Malera 2011
Sexual Minorities, Human Rights and HIV/AIDS: A Trainer's Guide Botswana Network on Ethics, Law and HIV/AIDS (BONELA) 2011
The Avahan-India AIDS Initiative: Promising Approaches to Combination HIV Prevention Programming in Concentrated Epidemics Bill Rau 2011
Regional Assessment on HIV Prevention Needs of Migrants and Mobile Populations in Southern Africa International Organization for Migration (IOM) 2010
Regional Assessment on HIV Prevention Needs of Migrants and Mobile Populations in Southern Africa: Transport Sector Report International Organization for Migration (IOM) 2010
Avahan–The India AIDS Initiative Fact Sheet Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 2009
UNAIDS Guidance Note on HIV and Sex Work UNAIDS 2009
Investigating Sexual Exploitation And Trafficking Of Women And Children At The Oshikango Border Post Immaculate Sechogele 2008
Avahan – The India AIDS Initiative: The Business of HIV Prevention at Scale Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 2008
Anal and dry sex in commercial sex work, and relation to risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Meru, Kenya M Schwandt, C Morris, A Ferguson, E Ngugi, and S Moses 2006
Malawi Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey 2006 and Comparative Analysis of 2004 BSS and 2006 BBSS NAC, USAID, CDC, FHI 2006
Violence against sex workers and HIV prevention: Information sheet WHO Department of Gender, Women and Health, Global Coalition on Women and AIDS 2005
OVC estimates from DHS MEASURE Evaluation
OVC estimation calculator MEASURE Evaluation
OVCsupport.org resource database OVCsupport.org